Wednesday, January 4, 2017

Conversation between two friends

Conversation between two friends


Example-1
           Conversation Regarding Giving Entrance Exam

Raju: Hey Priya, what are you planning to do after graduation?

Priya: I'm still not very sure, have not decided yet. What have you decided to do after completing graduation?

Raju: I'm planning to give Banks Entrance Exam.

Priya: Which Exam?

Raju: Its PO entrance exam. If I will clear it, i, will get a good government banking job.Government jobs are best to secure our future.

Priya: Hmmm, really good. I think i should also plan to give some entrance exam to get a good job.

Raju: Yes, sure. Competition is too high now days and doing just graduation is not enough to secure our future. We need to do something unique to get good job.

Priya: You have very good plans for your future. Its very nice.

Raju: Now we should be going for our classes.

Priya: Yes come on we are getting late now.



Example-2
           Conversation Regarding Starting Own Business

Thilagan: Hey, Sudharsan  what's going on?

Sudharsan: Nothing just came for a break. What happened to you? Since last few days you seem to be quite upset.

Thilagan: Daily client is shouting for the issues for which we are not even responsible. Now i can't bear this thing any more. And again the salary that we get is not enough to make our living.

Sudharsan: That's true. But what can we do.

Thilagan: I'm planning to start my own business.

Sudharsan: What type of business?

Thilagan: Same work, that we are doing right now but independently. Now i don't want to work under any boss. I want to be Boss of myself.

Sudharsan: But for this you will need clients. From where you will get them.

Thilagan: Don't know. Will try to start from the local market. After all we need to take a start from somewhere. Else life will be spent like this only in thinking. Why don't you also join me.

Sudharsan: Will you make me your partner?

Thilagan: Why not. See we are good colleagues and friends too. If we will work together there could be better outputs.

Sudharsan: Why not lets go ahead with our plan and try out our luck.

Thilagan: Sure, if we will try God will also help us out.



Example-3
          Conversation On New Year

kesika: Hi Hanitha, what are you doing?

Hanitha: Hi kesika, I am planning for the coming new year. It's so exciting every time when new year is almost to arrive.

kesika: Really, whats your plan for the coming new year? I've not even thought of anything yet.

Hanitha: It's a surprise. Tell me what will be yours this year's resolution?

kesika: Not thought of yet, but may be not to get any more scold of Teachers. :) What will be yours?

Hanitha: Mine is to complete schools work before doing anything else.

kesika: That's really nice. Now tell me what else you are planning for on this new year?

Hanitha: I was thinking to organize a get together of family and friends both. What do you think about this?

kesika: Not a bad idea, infact great. In daily, now a days people hardly get anytime to meet each other and have a word of talk.

Hanitha: Yes, like this every one meet, talk, celebrate and enjoy. It will be a great fun.

kesika: I was thinking to go to some Hill station on this new year. But still didn't got time to have words with ma papa.

Hanitha: This is also nice. You will have a great outing like this and a break from daily schedule.

kesika: Yes, we all need it.

Hanitha: Do click great snaps over there and tell me afterwards how your experience was. I will be really waiting to hear how your new year celebration was.

kesika: Ya sure. I will also be excited to hear, how your get together was. Do click great snaps so that we can share and enjoy our experiences.



Example-4
            Conversation On Diwali

shalini: Hey hi, How are you?

Leela: I'm fine, how are you? Tell me how was your Diwali?

shalini: It was Fab. We enjoyed a lot. We lighted up so many lamps and enjoyed crackers too.

Leela: Mine was also great. First of all we did Diwali Pujan with Ganesh Ji and Laxmi ji Statue and then we lightened up so many lamps. Our home was sparkling up with lights and joys and Happiness that Diwali brings with it.

shalini: Ya, its a great festival and one of the most important one. I simply love Diwali.

Leela :  Which sweet you use to enjoy on Diwali?

shalini: My Mom makes, Gujiya, Barfi and many other types of sweets on the occasion of Diwali. I simple love sweets so i enjoy all types of sweets. What sweets do you like on Diwali?

Leela: I'm not that too fond of sweets, but yes i, also love to eat Gujiya's.

shalini: On Diwali there are so many guests that use to come and give their best wishes for the upcoming new year. I love all this tradition.

Leela: We also use to go and visit our relatives. In fact now a days we have started to do a combined get together on the occasion of Diwali. In this celebration the entire family is invited and we use to enjoy a lot.
Leela: We use to organize different types of games both for children's and adults. Even we use to plan some games specially for couples. It is a great fun.

shalini: Wow, it sounds so exciting. I'll also propose this idea on next coming Diwali. I'm sure everyone will enjoy and this will definitely double the happiness of everyone.

Leela: Ya it will. Now we should go for our classes. Recess is over.

shalini  :   O.k. Lets go.



Example-5
        Conversation about how to improve grammar?

Saran: Hi, Madhav.

Madhav.: Hi. What's up?

Saran: I was just thinking of how I, can improve my grammar. I really want to, but, have no idea from where to start.

Madhav.: It's very easy take up any English grammar book and start reading it. Along reading do solve its given exercises.

Saran: Have you also read any grammar book?

Madhav.: Yes, of course and i love that book. I studied grammar with the help of Wren n Martin English grammar book. And believe me no book could be better than it.

Saran: Can I borrow your book for few days?

Madhav.: Ya sure, why not. Tomorrow i will bring it.

Saran: Oh, that's great. Thank you so much for your help and favor.

Madhav.: Anytime. Along with this, it will be good if you read English newspaper or magazine or anything that will help you to improve your fluency too.

Saran: Sure why not. Again thanks for your great tips. I will definitely follow them and work out with them.

Saturday, December 31, 2016

Grammer-, How to use tenses

Grammer
This is the schedule of a foreign ambassador who is arriving tomorrow -

Reaches Anna International Airport, Chennai at 9.00 a.m - Visits the Governor at Raj Bhavan at 10.00 a.m - Dines at the embassy - inaugurates book-fair at 2.00 p.m - holds talks with industrialists at 4.00 p.m - hosts tea at the embassy - meets the press at 6.00 p.m - leaves for Airport at 8.00 p.m.

Look at the words in underlines  - reaches, visits, dines, inaugurates, holds talks, hosts, meets, leaves.

This is the schedule for tomorrow, but the tense used is Present. Why is that?

Tense and Time are different concepts. Tense is language specific (that is, it differs from one  language to another). while time is universal. English has only two tense systems, namely, Present and Past. There is no Future Tense or Future Tense markers as you have in Present and Past.

.e.g  He walks - ‘s’ is the present tense marker
He walked - ‘ed’ is the past tense marker
In ‘He will walk’ - ‘will’ is an auxiliary and is not an inflexion of the base verb, as in the case of present and past tense.

                Finite Verb                                             Non-finite Verb

       Present              Past                                ‘-ing’          Infinitive             ‘-en’
(Write, writes)       (wrote)                           participle       (to + go,           participle
                                                                                            to + write)


A finite verb is one to which a tense is attached and a Non-finite verb cannot indicate tense. Killing, taken, to see, are verbs which cannot indicate tense.
There is no one-to-one relation between time and tense.The examples in the following table.


Example                                           Tense                                               Time
                                                           Tense                                                meaning

I wanted to speak to you.               Past Tense                                        Present Time

A flower girl enters.                        Present                                              Present

Higgins, Pickering and Eliza          Tense                                                  Time
arrive.
They enter the reception hall.


Her classes begin at half  past                 Present                                    Future Time
four this afternoon.                                   Tense

I’m launching her at the embassy            Present                                        Future Time
after two months.                                  Continuous
                                                                  Tense


She usually receives visitors                   Present                                        All time
once a week.                                                                                   Tense (habitual actions)

Practice makes Perfect.                                                              (universal truths & Proverbs)

It’s time I left.                                           Past Tense                            Present Time

Would you mind telling me ....                  Past Tense                           Present  Time

I met you yesterday.                                   Past Tense                                Past Time
My aunt died of it. The bet was won.

There is yet another pattern -                   Present                                          Past Time
Here comes Caesar!                                   Tense                                           (narratives)


Task 1.

Use the Present Continuous Tense to denote Future Time and complete the following dialogue -

A. telephone conversation between a patient and a doctor -

Patient : Good evening, Doctor! I would like to see you tomorrow. Can I have an appointment at                       6.00 p.m please?

Doctor : Sorry, I am leaving (leave) for Bangalore tomorrow afternoon.

Patient : What about Wednesday, then? Same time.

Doctor : Let me check. I .................... (attend) a conference that evening.

Patient : And Friday evening?

Doctor : I ............................... (not go) to the clinic on Friday.

Patient : Well, Saturday evening?

Doctor : I ............................ (operate) on a patient that evening.

Patient : How about Sunday?

Doctor : I ............................. (visit) a patient at home on Sunday evening.

Patient : At least next Monday?

Doctor : Yes, Monday evening is O.K. So, I ...................... (see) you on Monday at 6.00 p.m. Right?

Patient : Yes, doctor. Thank you.


Task 2:

Find out the correct tense and time used in the following sentences. The first one has been done for you.
1. Latin and Sanskrit are classical languages. (Present  Tense, All Time)

2. Ranjith reads his English course book.

3. I wanted to tell you about the rules of English grammar.

4. I’m teaching you English poetry tomorrow.

5. (As the curtain goes up and the play begins, the narrator says) “Here comes King Lear!”

6. It’s time you went for your French class

7. We usually have our English class in the first period.

8. Would you mind helping me with this grammar?

9. Selvi met Swarna at the German embassy.

10. Silence is the most eloquent language.








Thursday, December 29, 2016

how to speak dialogues-between two strangers


Examples of dialogues;


Conversation between two strangers
(Generally two strangers talk about the weather.)

Arun : It’s pretty hot today. Isn’t it?

Balu : Yes, it certainly is. It’s like summer.

Arun : Very surprising for October! How I wish it rained!

Balu: That’s right; or else we’ll have water scarcity this year too.

Arun : Last week it was a little cool.

Balu: Yes, it was. I thought it might rain. But it didn’t.


Arun : I wonder what the weather will be like tomorrow.

Balu: Looks like we’ll have another hot, sunny day.



Example-2

Talking about future plans

A teacher of English, on her retirement, talks about her plans to her colleagues.

Colleague 1 : Now that you’re retiring, what do you plan to do?

Teacher : I’m going to write a book. I want to share my experiences with others.

Colleague 2 : Are you going to stay in Chennai?

Teacher : No, I’m thinking of settling down in my home town, Thanjavur.

Colleague 1 : What other plans do you have?

Teacher : I’m planning to teach Spoken English. Before that I’m likely to go to the States, for a short stay with my son.

All :We wish you all the very best.

Teacher : Thank you.


practice the following dialogue.

A. Hello Paul! Where are you going ?

B. Hi Seeni! I’m going to the bank to encash a cheque.

C. Mind your purse. There are a lot of pick - pockets in the city. How are you going?

D. By bus.

E. Take my bike. But be careful. I’ll go with you, if you like.





Sunday, December 4, 2016

grammar - when we use conjuctions

Many words are used to connect sentences and those words give the passage the much needed 
emphasis.

Eg. I reached the station.

The train left.

I reached the station but the train had left

The word ‘but’ emphasizes the point that the train had left before I reached the station and also enriches the text.

Similarly...

1. Jenifer has answered the question.

2. Beulah has answered the question.

3. Both are not very clear about the answers.

‘Both’ in sentence 3 emphasizes the fact that Jenifer and Beulah have not answered properly and the word ‘both’ enriches the sentence.

The words ‘but’ and ‘both’ connect the sentences and enrich the meaning.

A few more conjunctions are and, or, because, etc.

Read the following passage and underline the conjunctions:

Malliga, a village girl wanted to get admission in a college in the city. She went to the bank to get a loan. But the manager was not there. She waited for him and met him. He refused to sanction the loan because she had no account in the bank. She immediately went home. But neither her mother nor
her father was at home. Both had left for the fields. She was not only shocked but also disappointed. She decided to go to the bank the next day.





Thursday, December 1, 2016

Grammar -preposition and Articles.

preposition

A preposition is a linking word. It usually comes before a noun or pronoun. Prepositions say where someone or something is located.

Read this conversation.The prepositions have been underline.

Teacher : Meena, where is the picture I gave you?

Student : It is on the table, sir.

Teacher : It isn’t here. Did you put it in the cupboard?

Student : It isn’t there, Sir, Oh...... it is under your table sir.

There are other prepositions too, which you can use for showing the positions of something. They are at, near, beside, between, above, over, in front of, below, etc.




Articles

An ‘article’ is a kind of determiner.

‘a’ and ‘an’ are indefinite articles.

The article ‘a’ is always used before words beginning with a consonant sound.
Example: a house, a cat

The article ‘an’ is always used before words beginning with a vowel sound (and not the vowel letters - a, e, i, o, u)

Example: an elephant,   an M LA



How the definite article ‘the’ is used.

Look at the following sentences.

(i) Meg, the oldest longed for pretty things.
Amy, the youngest wanted to buy some coloured pencils.
It was the happiest Christmas ever.
the oldest’, ‘the youngest’, ‘the happiest’

The definite article ‘the’ is used before an adjective in the superlative degree.

e.g. The Amazon is the longest river in the world.


(ii) She played the piano.
Here ‘the’ is used before a musical instrument.
e.g. I like to play the guitar.

(iii) The shoes were worn out.

The audience was delighted with the play.

In the first sentence,’the shoes were worn out’, there is a reference to the shoes in the previous sentence - ‘Jo held out mother’s shoes over the fire’.

Similarly, in the second sentence, ‘the audience was delighted with the play’, there is an earlier reference to the play- ‘they had planned to put up a play for their friends’.

When a person or thing has already been mentioned, the definite article is used in later references to that particular person or thing.

e.g. I saw a boy near the bus stop. The boy was blind.


(iv) Mother came into the room.
Meg escorted her to the table.

In the first sentence, ‘the room’, refers to a particular room and ‘the table’, refers to a particular table where the gifts are placed.

When it is clear from the context that a particular person or thing is meant, the definite article is used.
e.g. I asked my son not to play in the street.


Now read the following passage:

Galileo was an astronomer. An astronomer is a person who studies the sun, the moon, the planets and the stars. In 1608, Lippershey invented the first telescope. Galileo heard about the invention and set to work on making a telescope for himself.

Galileo studied the stars with his telescope. His ideas about the sun and the earth were different from what the Bible had said.

(v) We say the sun, the moon, the planets, the stars, the sky and the earth. These are the only ones of their kind. Our reference to them is definite. Therefore the definite article ’the’ is used.

(vi) ‘The Bible’ - we say ‘The Bible’, ‘The Ramayana’, ‘The Koran’, etc. The definite article is used before the names of certain well-known books.

(vii) I usually go to work on the bus. But my brother goes to work on the train. We can also use ‘the’ with means of transport.

e.g. Kumar goes to work on the motor bike.
Note: I go by bus. I go on the bus. ‘The’ is used after ‘on’. 

(viii) I have to go to the dentist tomorrow. We use ‘the’ with the names of some occupations.
e.g. Vidhya went to the goldsmith to buy a ring.

(ix) He went to the Indian Institute of Technology. Shahjahan built the Taj Mahal.

We use ‘the’ before the names of institutions, monuments, etc.
e.g. We are trained at the Regional Institute of English.

(x) Mt. Everest is in the Himalayas.

We use ‘the’ before geographical features - mountain ranges, rivers, oceans, etc.
e.g. The plane flew across the Pacific Ocean.



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