Sunday, December 4, 2016

grammar - when we use conjuctions

Many words are used to connect sentences and those words give the passage the much needed 
emphasis.

Eg. I reached the station.

The train left.

I reached the station but the train had left

The word ‘but’ emphasizes the point that the train had left before I reached the station and also enriches the text.

Similarly...

1. Jenifer has answered the question.

2. Beulah has answered the question.

3. Both are not very clear about the answers.

‘Both’ in sentence 3 emphasizes the fact that Jenifer and Beulah have not answered properly and the word ‘both’ enriches the sentence.

The words ‘but’ and ‘both’ connect the sentences and enrich the meaning.

A few more conjunctions are and, or, because, etc.

Read the following passage and underline the conjunctions:

Malliga, a village girl wanted to get admission in a college in the city. She went to the bank to get a loan. But the manager was not there. She waited for him and met him. He refused to sanction the loan because she had no account in the bank. She immediately went home. But neither her mother nor
her father was at home. Both had left for the fields. She was not only shocked but also disappointed. She decided to go to the bank the next day.





Thursday, December 1, 2016

Grammar -preposition and Articles.

preposition

A preposition is a linking word. It usually comes before a noun or pronoun. Prepositions say where someone or something is located.

Read this conversation.The prepositions have been underline.

Teacher : Meena, where is the picture I gave you?

Student : It is on the table, sir.

Teacher : It isn’t here. Did you put it in the cupboard?

Student : It isn’t there, Sir, Oh...... it is under your table sir.

There are other prepositions too, which you can use for showing the positions of something. They are at, near, beside, between, above, over, in front of, below, etc.




Articles

An ‘article’ is a kind of determiner.

‘a’ and ‘an’ are indefinite articles.

The article ‘a’ is always used before words beginning with a consonant sound.
Example: a house, a cat

The article ‘an’ is always used before words beginning with a vowel sound (and not the vowel letters - a, e, i, o, u)

Example: an elephant,   an M LA



How the definite article ‘the’ is used.

Look at the following sentences.

(i) Meg, the oldest longed for pretty things.
Amy, the youngest wanted to buy some coloured pencils.
It was the happiest Christmas ever.
the oldest’, ‘the youngest’, ‘the happiest’

The definite article ‘the’ is used before an adjective in the superlative degree.

e.g. The Amazon is the longest river in the world.


(ii) She played the piano.
Here ‘the’ is used before a musical instrument.
e.g. I like to play the guitar.

(iii) The shoes were worn out.

The audience was delighted with the play.

In the first sentence,’the shoes were worn out’, there is a reference to the shoes in the previous sentence - ‘Jo held out mother’s shoes over the fire’.

Similarly, in the second sentence, ‘the audience was delighted with the play’, there is an earlier reference to the play- ‘they had planned to put up a play for their friends’.

When a person or thing has already been mentioned, the definite article is used in later references to that particular person or thing.

e.g. I saw a boy near the bus stop. The boy was blind.


(iv) Mother came into the room.
Meg escorted her to the table.

In the first sentence, ‘the room’, refers to a particular room and ‘the table’, refers to a particular table where the gifts are placed.

When it is clear from the context that a particular person or thing is meant, the definite article is used.
e.g. I asked my son not to play in the street.


Now read the following passage:

Galileo was an astronomer. An astronomer is a person who studies the sun, the moon, the planets and the stars. In 1608, Lippershey invented the first telescope. Galileo heard about the invention and set to work on making a telescope for himself.

Galileo studied the stars with his telescope. His ideas about the sun and the earth were different from what the Bible had said.

(v) We say the sun, the moon, the planets, the stars, the sky and the earth. These are the only ones of their kind. Our reference to them is definite. Therefore the definite article ’the’ is used.

(vi) ‘The Bible’ - we say ‘The Bible’, ‘The Ramayana’, ‘The Koran’, etc. The definite article is used before the names of certain well-known books.

(vii) I usually go to work on the bus. But my brother goes to work on the train. We can also use ‘the’ with means of transport.

e.g. Kumar goes to work on the motor bike.
Note: I go by bus. I go on the bus. ‘The’ is used after ‘on’. 

(viii) I have to go to the dentist tomorrow. We use ‘the’ with the names of some occupations.
e.g. Vidhya went to the goldsmith to buy a ring.

(ix) He went to the Indian Institute of Technology. Shahjahan built the Taj Mahal.

We use ‘the’ before the names of institutions, monuments, etc.
e.g. We are trained at the Regional Institute of English.

(x) Mt. Everest is in the Himalayas.

We use ‘the’ before geographical features - mountain ranges, rivers, oceans, etc.
e.g. The plane flew across the Pacific Ocean.



Tuesday, November 29, 2016

Grammar-punctuation marks,The expansion of the short forms and compound words .

Read the following dialogue

Kala : You are very happy today. What is the matter?

Sheela : My father has planned to take us tos our village in Thanjavur.

Kala : But you can’t take leave from the school.

Sheela : We are not going now. We will be going to our village during the holidays.

Note that there is a full stop at the end of each sentence. The new sentence starts with a capital letter. Full stop and capital letter are a part of punctuation marks.


Read the following sentences:

1. I go to school at 8:00 a.m?

2. My father leaves his office at 6:00 p.m.

3. Our HM is a strict person.

4. The great Pyramid was built in 2600 B.C.

5. India will be a developed country in 2015 A.D.

The underlined letters are in short forms. We use these forms in daily conversation.

The expansion of the short forms are given below:

am - ante meridian (from midnight twelve o’clock to twelve noon)

pm - post meridian (from twelve noon to midnight twelve)

HM - Headmaster / Headmistress

BC - Before Christ

AD - Anno Domini (since the year of the birth of  Christ)  




The underlined  words  are  compound words  . They consist of two or more words

1. noun + noun
Example: school girl, text book

2. Adjective noun
Example: big bag, back seat

Match the words under A with their corresponding words under B.

A                                                B
1. tea                                        1. pages
2. baby                                     2. room
3. yellow                                  3. sitter
4. gold                                     4. pot
5. class                                    5. smith



Saturday, November 26, 2016

Grammar-What is Subject and verb ?

Grammar:

Look at the following sentences.

1. Kutraleeswaran swam in the sea.

(Kutraleeswaran        swam                  in the sea.)
          S                         V                            A
2. He was twelve.

 (He            was       twelve.)
    S               V           C

3. He bagged gold medals.

(He              bagged              gold medals)
   S                   V                         O


The naming words/word which represents the person / thing that performs the action is called Subject, (eg. Sent. 1 - Kutraleeswaran)

The action words/word is called Verb. (eg. Sent.l - swam)

The action word may complete the meaning of the sentence or may need more words to complete the meaning. If the verb phrase ends the meaning of the sentence, it is called the intransitive verb(vi) and the words following them usually answer the questions - when, where, why and how. These
words are referred to as Adjuncts, (eg. Sent.l - in the sea)

 If the verb phrase requires another word/words to complete the meaning, it is a Complement or an Object as the case may be.

In English, the ‘be’ verbs (am, is, are, was, were) and the verbs to seem, to appear, to become’ always take a complement, (eg. Sent.2 - twelve)

If the action verb is other than those mentioned above and requires a word to complete the meaning, it is said to be a transitive verb (vi) . (Some verbs can be either transitive or  intransitive eg. fly, smoke) The words following it may be an Object - direct or indirect, (eg. Sent.3 gold medals)

NOTE: In “She is a girl,” ‘is’ is a verb.  In “She is reading a letter,” ‘is’ is a part of the verbal
phrase ‘is reading’ and the verb is ‘read’. Is’ is the auxiliary.


Monday, November 21, 2016

grammar-Letter Writing

Letter Writing

1. Informal or personal letters

2. Formal or official letters

Informal letters are written to our relatives, friends and others.We use friendly and conversational style.

Note below the different parts of an informal letter :

                                                                         1          Kitchen Cupboard
                                                                                      Mouse Town
                                                                                     11th March 2150


Dear Cousin               2

I have been ill with a cough and my doctor feels I need a holiday. He has asked me to spend a week in the country side. May I please stay with you?
                                                      With warm regards,              3


                                                                                                  4          Yours affectionately,
                                                                                                                 Town Cousin

To
The Mouse Hole           5
Mouse Country


The different parts of an informal letter are

1. The Heading
2. Greeting or Salutation
3. Body of the letter
4. Leave taking or subscription
5. Address on the envelope or the superscription



Formal Letters are business letters, invitations, applications, etc. We use polite and serious style. Note below the parts of a formal letter

From

         G.Elizabeth                                                                                                  Chennai
        14, Anna Salai                                              ->1<-                                    9th August 1998
         Chennai-2

To

          The Headmistress
          Govt. Girls Hr.Sec.School

         Chennai -5.

Madam,        

               My parents have planned to go to Shrine Velankanni at Nagapattinam. Please grant me leave for three days from 10.8.1998.
                                                      Thanking you,

                                                                         4
                                                                                                        5    Yours obediently
                                                                                                                 G.Elizabeth
To
The Headmistress,
Govt. Girls Hr. Sec. School,             6
Chennai - 5.



1. The date and the heading
2. Address of the receiver
3. Greeting or salutation
4. Body of the letter
5. Leave taking or subscription

6. Address on the envelope or superscription





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