Saturday, September 10, 2016

WORD ANALYSIS-Define each suffix.,Adjective Suffixes,Verb Suffixes,Noun Suffixes.

WORD ANALYSIS


To learn English words thoroughly we must spend some thought on the way in which they are made up, on the language from which they have been derived, and on the changes in meaning made by adding prefixes and suffixes. Three important influences in building the English have been  the Anglo-Saxon, the Greek, and the Latin languages. The simplest words in the language are Anglo-Saxon. The following exercises illustrate how words have been multiplied by Anglo-Saxon prefixes and suffixes.


Name as many words as you can that make use of each of the following prefixes. Give only such as are recognizable English words without the prefix.

    a--aboard               mis--misjudge
    be--becalm              un--unknown
    fore--foretell          up--uproot

Give the meaning of each of the prefixes used above.

What part of speech does each prefix make

Using the following Teutonic suffixes, form English words. Be careful that the root taken alone is an English word.

    dom--kingdom           ness--goodness
    hood--manhood          ship--friendship

What does each suffix mean?

What part of speech does it make?


As above, form words using the following suffixes:

    en--darken       ful--fearful
    en--golden       ly--smoothly
    ish--sweetish    like--childlike
    less--fearless   some--lonesome

Define each suffix.

What part of speech does it make?

Greek Roots

Below is given a list of common Greek roots with the English meaning of each. Form words using one or more of the roots for each word, and define the words you make. For instance, give the meaning of telephone, telegraph, and monarch.

    Greek English           Greek English

    phon--hear                chron--time
    tele--far                 cycl--circle
    graph--write              geo--earth
    scop--see                 polit--government
    micro--small              cra--rule
    mono--one                 demo--people
    arch--chief               hydro--water
    metr--measure             poly--many
    baro--pressure, weight    pluto--riches

How many names of modern inventions have you made?

What words belonging to your vocabulary end in the following suffixes?
Choose only such as have an English word for the root.

Adjective Suffixes

     1. able, ible--able to be, fit to be
        Readable, fit to be read.

     2. al, eal, ial--relating to, having to do with

     3. ant, ent--being, inclined to

     4. ate--having the quality of, inclined to

     5. ic--like, relating to

     6. ive--relating to, of the nature of, belonging to

     7. ory, ary--relating to

     8. ous--full of, abounding in


Verb Suffixes


    1. ate--to make

    2. fy, ify--to make

    3. ise, ize--to make

Noun Suffixes

     1. age--condition, act, collection of

     2. ance, ancy, ence, ency--state of being

     3. ary, ory--one who, place where, that which

     4. ant, ent--one who

     5. ist, ite--one who

     6. ion, sion, tion--act of, state of being

     7. ity, ty--quality of being

     8. ment--that which, act or state of being

     9. or, er, ar--one who

    10. try--state of

    11. tude, itude--condition of being

    12. ure--condition of being, that which



The following is a list of the more commonly used Latin prefixes:

     1. a, ab--away from               16. intro--toward the inside
     2. ad--toward                       17. mono--one
     3. ante--before                     18. non--not
     4. anti--against                    19. ob--in the way of, against
     5. bi--two, twice                   20. per--through
     6. circum--around                   21. pre--before
     7. con--together with, against      22. post--after
     8. contra--against                  23. pro--before
     9. de--from, apart from, down from  24. re--again, back
    10. dis--apart, not                  25. semi--half, partly
    11. dia--through                     26. se--away from
    12. ex--out of                       27. sub--under, below
    13. in, en--into                        28. super--above, more than
        en--to cause to be               29. trans--across

   14. in, un--not                    30. uni--one
    15. inter--between



Analyze the following words, telling prefix, root, suffix, part of speech, and meaning:

    business        package         truthfulness    unsuccessful
    useless         anteroom        workmanlike     agreement
    prefix          monotone        nervousness     uniformity
    beautify        breakage        disrespectful   misguidance
    semicircle      pleasant        perfection      crystallize
    kingship        sameness        progressive     precaution
    incase          subway          undeniable      imaginary
    enrich          disown          displeasure     supernatural
    pianist         readmit         endurance       melodious
    bicycle         adjuster        reaction        interlineal




When the prefixes ad, con, and in are used to form English words, the final consonant of each is often changed to the initial consonant of the root to which it is joined.

Ad assumes the forms ab, ac, af, ag, al, an, ap, ar, as, at, assimilating the d with the first letter of the word to
which it is prefixed; as,

    ab-breviate     al-literation   ar-rest
    ac-cept         al-lot          as-sign
    ac-cumulate     an-nex          as-sist
    af-fect         an-nounce       at-tract
    af-flict        ap-position     at-tribute
    ag-gregate      ap-prove        at-tune

Con assumes the forms col, cor, com, by assimilation; it takes the form com before p; and it drops the n before a vowel; as,

    col-lateral     com-mercial     com-pose
    col-lect        cor-relate      co-operate
    com-mission     cor-respond     co-ordinate

In assumes the forms il, im, ir, by assimilation and takes the form of im before p.

    il-lusion    im-migrate   ir-ruption   im-port

Peculiar Adjective Endings

The suffixes able and ible are sometimes troublesome because it is difficult to know which ending to write. As a rule, if the new word was made from another English word, the ending is able, as blamable. The words ending in ible are derived from the Latin, and, as a rule, the ending cannot easily be separated from the root and still leave the latter an English word. Examples are:

    divisible     intelligible  digestible    audible
    visible       permissible   flexible      incredible
    possible      terrible      horrible      indelible

The suffixes ant and ent must also be carefully noted. No rule can be given for using one rather than the other. Whenever in doubt, consult a dictionary. Note the following:

      ant            ent
    important        independent
    pleasant         convalescent
    triumphant       competent
    luxuriant        convenient
    stagnant         confident

The endings eous and ious, where e and i are often confused, are illustrated in the following:

     eous            ious
    hideous           delirious
    miscellaneous     impious
    courteous         studious

The endings cious and tious are shown in the following:

     cious             tious
    conscious           fictitious
    precious            superstitious
    delicious           cautious
    gracious            ambitious
    suspicious          nutritious

The endings gious and geous are illustrated in the following:

     gious             geous
    religious          courageous


Peculiar Noun and Verb Endings=

Nouns in ance and ence:

ance            ence
    acceptance        intelligence
    appearance        reference
    annoyance         patience
    acquaintance      negligence
    remittance        diligence
    ignorance         residence

Nouns in sion, cion, and tion:

     sion        cion         tion
    exclusion     coercion      acquisition
    aversion      suspicion     precaution

Verbs in ise, yze, and ize:

    ise          yze         ize
    advise        analyze       baptize
    supervise     paralyze      recognize

Verbs in ceed, sede, and cede:

    ceed         sede        cede
    exceed        supersede     concede
    proceed                     intercede
    succeed                     precede



What other words can you form from the following? Explain what prefixes or suffixes you use in each case and what part of speech you form.

    success      consider     real         change
    please       doubt        publish      attend
    occur        apply        regular      satisfy
    emphasize    industry     operate      assess
    second       busy         practice     resist
    expense      distribute   organ        define
    depend       locate       work         sense
    attract      install      desire       preside
    effect       vital        count        sign



There are many words the meanings of which are easily confused. The spelling and the definitions of such must be mastered. Analysis in this exercise and in the one following does not require separation into prefix, root, and suffix, but it necessitates a careful study of the words, first, to note the difference in spelling; second, to consult a dictionary, if necessary, for the difference in meaning.

Define each word clearly.

Use each in a sentence to illustrate its meaning.

    accept--except             common--mutual
    add--annex                 complementary--complimentary
    advice--advise             continual--continuous
    affect--effect             contraction--abbreviation
    after--afterward           contradiction--denial
    ascend--assent             currant--current
    assure--promise            defective--deficient
    attain--obtain             deprecate--depreciate
    benefit--advantage         effective--efficient
    brief--concise             eligible--illegible
    center--middle             eminent--prominent
    claim--maintain            expect--hope
    combine--combination       intelligent--intelligible



As above, define each word carefully and use it in a sentence to illustrate its meaning.

healthful--healthy         proficient--efficient
    inventory--invoice         proscribe--prescribe
    invite--invitation         purpose--propose
    last--latest               quiet--quite
    later--latter              recommend--recommendation
    liable--likely--apt        refer--allude
    loose--lose                repair--fix
    need--want                 requirement--requisite--requisition
    perspective--prospective   respectfully--respectively
    positive--definite         scarcely--hardly
    practicable--practical     stationary--stationery
    precede--proceed           therefore--accordingly
    principal--principle

Monday, September 5, 2016

SPELLING RULES--Plurals of Nouns,Irregular Plurals,Compound Nouns,Foreign Plurals,The Formation of Participles,Abbreviations.


SPELLING RULES

-Plurals of Nouns

    (a) dress, dresses      (b) chair, chairs
    splash, splashes               wave, waves
    business, businesses           book, books
    church, churches               pencil, pencils
    fox, foxes                     paper, papers

The usual way of forming the plural of English nouns is illustrated by the words in column (b) above. What is it?

If you add s to the singular form dress, could you distinguish the pronunciation of the plural from the pronunciation of the singular? Does this suggest a reason for adding es to form the plural?

How many syllables must you use to pronounce the plural of fox? Does this suggest another reason for adding es to form the plural?

Every word that ends in a sibilant or hissing sound (ch, s, sh, ss, x, z) forms its plural like fox. Give several llustrations.

Rule 1.--Nouns regularly form the plural by adding s, but those ending in a sibilant must addes.


    (a) lady, ladies       (b) valley, valleys
    ally, allies                  alley, alleys
    soliloquy, soliloquies        journey, journeys

Name five words belonging to group (a) above. Does a vowel or a consonant precede the y in each case?

Name other words belonging to the group (b) above. Does a vowel or a consonant precede the y in each case?

Rule 2.--Nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant (and nouns ending in quy) form the plural by changing y to i and addinges.


Words ending in o

(a)

    potato, potatoes      hero, heroes          mulatto, mulattoes
    tomato, tomatoes      buffalo, buffaloes    cargo, cargoes
    negro, negroes        echo, echoes          motto, mottoes

(b)

    solo, solos           piano, pianos         memento, mementos
    halo, halos           lasso, lassos         canto, cantos
    zero, zeros           quarto, quartos       soprano, sopranos
                          stilletto, stillettos



The older English words ending in o form the plural by adding es, as in potatoes; those more recently taken into the language form the plural by adding s, as in quartos.


Nouns in f and fe

    leaf, leaves      calf, calves      wife, wives
    loaf, loaves      sheaf, sheaves    shelf, shelves
    half, halves      wolf, wolves      elf, elves
    life, lives       beef, beeves      wharf, wharves (or wharfs)
    self, selves      knife, knives

With the exception of the words given above, nouns ending in an f sound form the plural in the regular way; as,

    hoof, hoofs     scarf, scarfs   beliefs, beliefs
    chief, chiefs   reef, reefs     grief, griefs

Irregular Plurals

Some nouns form their plural by a change of vowel; as,

    man     men         foot    feet
    woman   women       tooth   teeth
    goose   geese       mouse   mice

A few words retain the old time plural en; as,

              brother brethren
    child   children        ox      oxen

A few words are the same in both singular and plural; as,

    sheep, trout, deer

Some nouns have two plurals which differ in meaning; as,

    Singular                Plural
    brother                brothers  brethren
    penny                  pennies   pence
    pea                    peas      pease
    die                    dies      dice

Consult a dictionary for the difference in meaning between the two plurals of each word.


Compound Nouns

    Singular                Plural
    brother-in-law         brothers-in-law
    father-in-law          fathers-in-law
    court-martial          courts-martial
    commander-in-chief     commanders-in-chief
    man-of-war             men-of-war
    major general          major generals
    goose quill            goose quills
    bill of fare           bills of fare
    spoonful               spoonfuls
    cupful                 cupfuls

Rule 3.Compound nouns usually add the sign of the plural to the fundamental part of the word.

      NOTE.--In spoonfuls the thought is of one spoon many       times full.

Plural of Letters and Figures

Rule 4.--Letters and figures form the plural by adding the apostrophe (') and s; as,

    a  a's        3  3's
    w  w's        5  5's

The same rule applies to the plural of words which ordinarily have no plural; as,

    Don't use so many and's and if's.


Foreign Plurals

Some nouns derived from foreign languages retain their original plural.
The following are in common use.

Consult a dictionary for their pronunciation and definition.

    Singular     Plural     Singular     Plural

    crisis        crises        stratum       strata
    thesis        theses        radius        radii
    hypothesis    hypotheses    parenthesis   parentheses
    focus         foci          synopsis      synopses
    datum         data          basis         bases
    alumnus       alumni        automaton     automata
    alumna        alumnae       analysis      analyses
    oasis         oases         nucleus       nuclei
    axis          axes          phenomenon    phenomena
    genus         genera

Some words admit of two plurals, one the foreign plural, and one the regular English plural; as,

    Singular         Plural

    beau          beaux       beaus
    formula       formulae    formulas
    vertex        vertices    vertexes
    index         indices     indexes
    cherub        cherubim    cherubs
    seraph        seraphim    seraphs
    bandit        banditti    bandits

Consult a dictionary to see whether there is any difference of meaning between the two plurals of these words.

The Formation of Participles

    Rap, rapping, rapped      Reap, reaping, reaped

Rap is a monosyllable ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel. The final consonant in such words is doubled before a suffix beginning with a vowel is added.

In reap the final consonant is not doubled because it is preceded by two vowels.

Make the participles of the following verbs:

    chat    lap     suit    step
    cheat   leap    sit     steep
    rot     train   sop     trot
    root    trim    soap    treat

 Trap, trapping, trapped    Track, tracking, tracked

Why is the final consonant in trap doubled before ing or ed is added?

The final consonant in track is not doubled because track ends with two consonants.

    Pin, pinning        Pine, pining

Pine drops the silent e because the tendency in English is to drop endings that are not needed for pronunciation before adding a suffix beginning with a vowel.

Form the participles of the following verbs:

    knot    rob     flop
    note    robe    elope
    deal    swim    quit    (u is not here a vowel)
    clap    strike  crawl   (w is here a vowel)
    stop    oil     wax     (x equals cks)
    peal    rush    bow     (w is here a vowel)


 applies also to words of more than one syllable accented on the last syllable, if they retain the accent on the same syllable after the suffix is added. Thus we have

=Rule 5.--Monosyllables or words accented on the last syllable, ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, double the final consonant before adding a suffix beginning with a vowel.=

Form participles from the following words that are accented on the last syllable:

    prefer        intervene     escape        expel
    refer         reveal        acquire       contain
    occur         repeal        secure        forbid
    permit        pursue        conceal       incur
    interfere     erase         arrange       forget
    retain        control       acquit        repel

Form participles from the following words not accented on the last syllable:

    benefit   travel    marvel    shelter
    revel     answer    exhibit   render
    quarrel   profit    shovel    limit

Words in which the accent changes do not double the final consonant before adding a suffix beginning with a vowel; as,

    confer    conference         infer     inference
    refer     reference          prefer    preferable

Explain why the final consonant is not doubled in each of the following words:


    neglect     neglecting      lean        leaning
    prefer      preference      select      selecting
    creep       creeping        receipt     receipting
    wonder      wondering       answer      answering


=Rule 6.--In forming the present participle of verbs ending in y, retain the y before adding ing; as,=

    study     studying          obey      obeying
    carry     carrying          convey    conveying
    pity      pitying

In forming the perfect participle, if in the present tense the y is preceded by a consonant, the y is changed to i and ed added; if the y is preceded by a vowel, the y is retained; as,

    study     studied   carry     carried   pity      pitied

but

    obey      obeyed    convey    conveyed

Compare with Rule 2.



=Rule 7.--In words containing a long e sound spelled either ie or ei, ei follows c; ie follows one of the other consonants; as,=

    ei                    ie
    deceive          relieve     siege
    perceive         believe     yield
    receive          belief      grief
    conceive         chief       field
    conceit          priest      piece
    receipt          niece       wield
                     reprieve    lien

Exceptions.--Either, neither, weird, seize, leisure.

The following couplet may help in remembering when to write ie and when to write ei:

    When the letter c you spy,
    Put the e before the i.


The Pronunciation of c and g

The letter c is pronounced sometimes like s and sometimes like k.


What sound does c have before a? Illustrate.

Before e? Illustrate.

Before i? Illustrate.

Before o? Illustrate.

Before u? Illustrate.

Before y? Illustrate.

If c is pronounced like k, it is called hard and is marked [\c].

If c is pronounced like s, it is called soft and is marked ç. The mark used to indicate the soft c is called the cedilla.

Make a statement telling when c is hard and when it is soft.

What sound does g have before each of the vowels, as in game, gone, gymnasium, Gunther, gentle?

=Rule 8.--C and g usually are soft before e, i, and y.=


Words ending in silent e, according to Rule 5, drop the e before a suffix beginning with a vowel. Exceptions occur when the e is needed to preserve the soft sound of c and g. Tell why e is dropped in encouraging and retained in courageous.

In words containing dg, as in judge and lodge, the d gives the g the soft sound, and there is no need to retain the e before adding a suffix, as in judgment.

=Rule 9.--Words ending in silent e usually drop the e before adding a suffix beginning with a vowel, unless the e is needed to preserve the pronunciation; as after soft c and g, when the suffix begins with a or o.=

Tell why the e is retained before the suffix in the following:

    noticeable     damageable     pronounceable  outrageous
    courageous     peaceable      serviceable    manageable

Tell why the e is dropped before adding the suffix in the following:

    managing           curable            erasure
    besieging          admirable          realization
    receiving          obliging           precedence
                       perseverance

The fact that c has two different sounds causes a slight peculiarity in words ending in c. Final c has the sound of k. When words end in c, the letter k is usually added before a suffix beginning with either e, i, or y, to show that c is not pronounced like s; as,


    frolic         frolicked      frolicking

If the k is not added, the c changes its pronunciation; as,

    public                          publicity



It follows by inference from Rule 9 that words ending in silent e retain the e before a suffix beginning with a consonant; as,

    move        movement          disgrace    disgraceful
    defense     defenseless       fate        fateful
    arrange     arrangement       fierce      fiercely
    noise       noiseless         manage      management
    severe      severely          rude        rudeness

Exceptions.--Truly, duly, wisdom, awful, wholly.

Bring to class a list of twenty words that retain the final e before a suffix beginning with a consonant.




What spelling rule does each of the following words illustrate?

    advantageous     gigantic         boxes            admittance
    mimicking        piece            libraries        occurrence
    arrangement      receipt          keys             acquittal

Abbreviations

Write abbreviations for the months of the year. Are there any that should not be abbreviated?

The abbreviations for the states and territories are:


    Alabama, Ala.                   Maryland, Md.
    Arizona, Ariz.                  Massachusetts, Mass.
    Arkansas, Ark.                  Michigan, Mich.
    California, Cal.                Minnesota, Minn.
    Colorado, Colo.                 Mississippi, Miss.
    Connecticut, Conn.              Missouri, Mo.
    Delaware, Del.                  Montana, Mont.
    District of Columbia, D.C.      Nebraska, Nebr.
    Florida, Fla.                   Nevada, Nev.
    Georgia, Ga.                    New Hampshire, N.H.
    Idaho, Idaho                    New Mexico, N. Mex.
    Illinois, Ill.                  New York, N.Y.
    Indiana, Ind.                   New Jersey, N.J.
    Iowa, Ia.                       North Carolina, N.C.
    Kansas, Kans.                   North Dakota, N. Dak.
    Kentucky, Ky.                   Ohio, O.
    Louisiana, La.                  Oklahoma, Okla.
    Maine, Me.                      Oregon, Ore.
    Pennsylvania, Pa.               Utah, Utah
    Philippine Islands, P.I.        Vermont, Vt.
    Porto Rico, P.R.                Virginia, Va.
    South Carolina, S.C.            Washington, Wash.
    South Dakota, S.D.              Wisconsin, Wis.
    Tennessee, Tenn.                West Virginia, W. Va.
    Texas, Tex.                     Wyoming, Wyo.

      NOTE.--It is much better to write the full name rather than the abbreviation whenever the former would make
      the address clearer, especially as regards similar abbreviations, such as Cal. and Colo.

Abbreviations of Commercial Terms

A 1, first class                 doz., dozen
    @, at                            E. & O.E., errors and omissions
                                         excepted
    acct., account                   ea., each
    adv., advertisement              e.g., for example
    agt., agent                      etc., and so forth
    a.m., forenoon                   exch., exchange
    amt., amount                     ft., foot
    app., appendix                   f.o.b., free on board
    atty., attorney                  gal., gallon
    av., average                     i.e., that is
    avoir., avoirdupois              imp., imported
    bal., balance                    in., inches
    bbl., barrel                     inst., this month (instant)
    B/L, bill of lading              Jr., junior
    bldg., building                  kg., keg
    B/S, bill of sale                lb., pound
    bu., bushel                      ltd., limited
    C.B., cash book                  mdse., merchandise
    C., hundred                      mem., memorandum
    coll., collection, collector     mo., month
    Co., company                     M.S. (MSS)., manuscript
    C.O.D., cash on delivery         mtg., mortgage
    cr., creditor                    N.B., take notice
    cwt., hundredweight              no., number
    D., five hundred                 O.K., all right
    dept., department                per, by
    disc., discount                  p.m., afternoon
    do., ditto                       %, per cent
    dr., debtor, debit               St., street
    pkg., package                    str., steamer
    pp., pages                       ult., last month
    pr., pair                        U.S.M., United States Mail
    pc., piece                       viz., namely
    pk., peck                        vol., volume
    prox., next month                W/B, way bill
    pt., pint                        wt., weight
    Sr., senior


Sunday, August 28, 2016

Grammar-Homonyms, What is a syllable?,What is accent?

Homonyms

A homonym is a word having the same sound as another but differing from it in meaning. Use each of the following in a sentence to show its meaning.

    aloud         draft         fowl          principal
    allowed       draught       foul          principle

    ascent        faint         gate          peal
    assent        feint         gait          peel

    aught         canvas        great         quire
    ought         canvass       grate         choir

    bad           cereal        hew           seen
    bade          serial        hue           scene

    bale          cession       kernel        soul
    bail          session       colonel       sole

    berry         cite          leased        strait
    bury          site          least         straight

    boy           coarse        lesser        stair
    buoy          course        lessor        stare

    by            compliment    mite          sweet
    buy           complement    might         suite

    council       feign         miner         there
    counsel       fain          minor         their

    current       flour         need          wood
    currant       flower        knead         would


Do the same with the following:

    aisle         clause        kill          sail
    isle          claws         kiln          sale
    awl           climb         key           ring
    all           clime         quay          wring

    base          draught       lie           serge
    bass          draft         lye           surge

    blew          dew           medal         sole
    blue          due           meddle        soul

    bough         done          peer          shone
    bow           dun           pier          shown

    bread         dual          pore          steel
    bred          duel          pour          steal

    bear          flue          profit        stationary
    bare          flew          prophet       stationery

    bridal        freeze        quarts        wade
    bridle        frieze        quartz        weighed

    capital       guilt         rest          wave
    capitol       gilt          wrest         waive

    ceiling       heard         root          wrap
    sealing       herd          route         rap


Syllabication

What is a syllable?

Choose a word and notice that every vowel sound in it makes a syllable. Therefore, you never have two vowels in one syllable unless the two are pronounced as one sound.

In pronouncing notice carefully to which syllable a consonant belongs; s in dif-fer-ent, beau-ti-fy, dai-sy.

Divide the following words into syllables. If you cannot decide with which syllable a consonant belongs, consult a dictionary.

    paper      grocer     rotate     mystery
    tomato     erect      repeat     regular
    vinegar    polish     general    arithmetic

If a syllable, especially an accented syllable, ends in a vowel, what is usually the length of the vowel?

If the syllable ends in a consonant, what is usually the length of the vowel of the syllable?

When a consonant is doubled, the division is usually made between the two letters; as,

    blot-ter            skip-ping           remit-tance
    neces-sary          throt-tle           span-ning

As a rule, a prefix constitutes one syllable; as,

    pro-long    pre-fer    con-stant   de-fect     ad-mit
    re-ceive    se-lect    dis-trust   e-merge     im-merse

As a rule, a suffix constitutes one syllable; as,

    labor-er          soft-ly           beauti-fy         selec-tion
    mole-cule         revolution-ist    percent-age       fanat-ic

When two or more letters together give one sound, they must not be divided; as,

    math-ematics     ex-change        paragraph-ing    abolish-ing
    bow-ing          toil-ing         nation-al        gra-cious

Can a word of one syllable be divided?

Do not divide a syllable of one letter from the rest of the word. The division ever-y is wrong.

Divide the following words into syllables, using the suggestions given in the preceding exercise:

    accountant        dissatisfaction   manufacturer      reference
    advertisement     economy           material          repeatedly
    anecdote          employment        mechanical        salesman
    annually          energetic         neighborhood      security
    application       environment       occupation        separate
    automobile        especially        opportunity       signature
    beginning         establishment     organized         specification
    collection        expenditure       permanent         stenography
    comparison        factory           preparation       suburban
    competent         furniture         president         superintend
    confirmation      illustration      quotation         systematic
    consequence       impression        realize           telephone
    correspondence    improvement       receptacle        treasurer
    counterfeit       judgment          recognition       unanimous
    customer          machinist         recommend         unusual

Accent

What is accent?

Divide into syllables, indicate the accent, and pronounce the following:

    expand        volume        defect        interesting
    mischievous   usually       incomparable  theatre
    exquisite     tedious       hospitable    generally
    column        inquiry       impious

In the following words the meaning changes with the accent. Use each word in a sentence to show its meaning.

    ob´ject    subject    contrast   desert
    ob-ject´   insult     protest    extract
    tor´ment   essay      conflict   compact
    tor-ment´  transfer   compound   survey
    minute (notice the vowel change)
    refuse (notice the consonant change)

Bring to class a list of words that you have heard mispronounced in your classes. Be sure that you can pronounce them correctly.




The following words are frequently mispronounced. Divide them into syllables, mark the accent, and pronounce carefully.

    municipal     exquisite     champion      accurately
    interesting   gondola       inquiry       Genoa
    influence     finance       inexplicable  alias
    illustrate    deficit       despicable    expert
    inventory     pretense      mischievous   impious
    alternate     dirigible     perfume       detail


Thursday, August 25, 2016

part-2 - PRONUNCIATION-Diacritical Marks;Vowels;

PRONUNCIATION

WE are judged by our speech. If we clip syllables, run words together, or pronounce them incorrectly, we shall merit the criticism of being careless or even ignorant. Yet clear enunciation and correct pronunciation are sometimes difficult. We learn most words by hearing others say them, and, if we do not hear the true values given to the different syllables, we shall find it hard to distinguish the correct
from the incorrect forms. Children whose parents speak a foreign language usually have to watch their speech with especial care; Germans, for example, find difficulty in saying _th_ and Irish people in saying _oi_ as in _oil_. The exercises in this chapter are given for the purpose of correcting such habits. The words in the exercises should be pronounced repeatedly, until the correct forms are instinctive.

Train the ear to hear the difference between sounds, as in _just_ and in _jest_. Don't slide over the final consonant in such words as _going_ and _reading_. Watch words containing _wh_. The dictionary tells us that _where_ was originally written _hwar_, the _h_ coming before the _w_; and we still pronounce it so, although we write the _w_ before the _h_. The word _whether_ is of the same kind. The dictionary tells us that it was first spelled _hweder_. Such words should be carefully noted and their pronunciation practiced.

Then there is the habit of slurring syllables. We may understand what is meant by the expression "C'm' on" or "Waja say?", but most of us would prefer not to be included in the class of people who use either. Correct speech cannot be mastered without an effort.

In the following exercises watch every vowel and every consonant so that you may give each one its full value.


=Exercise 10--Diacritical Marks=

Although an _a_ is always written _a_, it is not always given the same quality or length of sound. When we discover a new word, it is important that we know exactly the quality to give each of the vowels in it. For this purpose _diacritical marks_ have been invented. They are
illustrated in the following list from Webster's _International Dictionary_.

r, ?r´mine, ev´?r
     _e_  "  "  re´c_e_nt, de´c_e_ncy, pru´d_e_nce
      i   "  "  ice, time, sight, inspire´
     [+i] "  "  [+i]dea´, tr[+i]bu´nal, b[+i]ol´ogy
      i   "  "  ill, pin, pit´y, admit´
      o   "  "  old, note, o´ver, propose´
     [+o] "  "  [+o]bey´, t[+o]bac´co, sor´r[+o]w
      ô   "  "  ôrb, lôrd, ôr´der, abhôr´
      o   "  "  odd, not, tor´rid, occur´
      u   "  "  use, pure, du´ty, assume´
     [+u] "  "  [+u]nite´, ac´t[+u]ate, ed[+u]ca´tion
      ?   "  "  r?de, r?´mor, intr?de´
      ?   "  "  f?ll, p?t, f?lfill´
      u   "  "  up, tub, stud´y
      û   "  "  ûrn, fûr, concûr´
     [)y] "  "  pit´[)y], in´jur[)y], divin´it[)y]
    [=oo] "  "  f[=oo]l, f[=oo]d, m[=oo]n
    [)oo] "  "  f[)oo]t, w[)oo]l, b[)oo]k
      ou  "  "  out, thou, devour´
      oi  "  "  oil, noi´sy, avoid´


 a is called long _a_, and is marked with the _macron_
    a is called short _a_, and is marked with the _breve_
    â is called caret _a_, and is marked with the _caret_
    ä is called Italian _a_, and is marked with the _diaeresis_
    ?  is called short Italian _a_, and is marked with the _dot_
    ? is called tilde _e_, and is marked with the _tilde_ or _wave_

Exercise 11--Vowels=

Of the twenty-six letters in the alphabet, how many are vowels? Name them. What are the other letters called?

Compare the _a_ in _hat_ and the _a_ in _hate_. Which has more nearly the sound of _a_ in the alphabet? This is called the natural or long sound of the vowel. The other is called the short sound.

Drop the _e_ from _hate_. Explain the result.

Name other monosyllables ending in _e_ and containing the long _a_ sound.

Explain the difference in pronunciation between _Pete_, _pet_, _ripe_, _rip_, _hope_, _hop_, _cube_, _cub_.

Find other monosyllables ending in _e_ and containing a long vowel that becomes short if the _e_ is dropped.

=Monosyllables ending in silent _e_ usually contain a long vowel sound, which becomes short when the final _e_ is dropped.=


=Exercise 12=

Pronounce carefully the following words containing the short Italian _a_:

    adv?nce      cl?ss      l?nce     pl?ster
    adv?ntage    contr?st   l?st      p?stor
    ?fter        ench?nt    m?sk      pr?nce
    b?sket       Fr?nce     m?ster    r?fter
    br?nch       gl?nce     m?stiff   sh?ft
    br?ss        gl?ss      p?ss      surp?ss
    ch?ff        gr?ss      p?st      t?sk

Exercise 13=

Pronounce the following carefully, noting each _a_ that is marked:

    hälf         ide?         cälm        audacious
    p?th         c?n't        apricot      ?gh?st
    ?sk          catch        m?dras       algebr?
    fäther       v[+a]cation  agile       forbade
    d?nce        extr?        c?st         tr?nce
    l?ss         c?sket       gr?nt        aviation


=Exercise 14=

Pronounce the vowel _o_ in the following very carefully. Don't give the sound _feller_ or _fella_ when you mean _fellow_.

    fellow      swallow     theory      borrow
    potato      follow      position    heroism
    window      original    factory     donkey
    pillow      evaporate   ivory       memory
    chocolate   mosquito    licorice    oriental


=Exercise 15=

The vowel _u_ needs particular attention. When it is long, it is sounded naturally, as it is in the alphabet. Do not say _redooce_ for _reduce_.

    reduce         picture        educate        figure
    produce        stupid         judicial       duty
    conducive      student        calculate      accumulate
    endure         genuine        curiosity      Tuesday
    duration       induce         regular        particular
    singular       avenue         tune           institute
    nutriment      constitution   culinary       January
    revenue        introduce      opportunity    manufacture

=Exercise 16=

Using diacritical marks indicate the value of the vowels in the following. Try marking them without first consulting a dictionary. After you have marked them, compare your markings with those used in a dictionary.

    pupil         different     diacritical   gigantic
    alphabet      several       radiating     gymnasium
    natural       letter        Wyoming       system
    result        eraser        typical       merchant


=Exercise 17=

Pronounce carefully, noting that in each word at least one consonant is silent, and sometimes a vowel as well. Draw an oblique line through the silent letter or letters in each.

    through     chasten    sword       island
    although    often       fasten      daughter
    wrong       soften      calf        might
    yacht       subtle      hasten      bouquet
    gnaw        almond      naughty     honest
    psalm       glisten     thumb       palm
    whistle     salve       should      knack
    salmon      chestnut    knowledge   castle
    answer      folks       listen      thigh
    knot        right       debt        honor


=Exercise 18=

Pronounce the following, paying particular attention to the vowels. Distinguish between the meanings of the words in each group.

    accept     bile       least      prevision
    except     boil       lest       provision

    affect     carol      eleven     poor
    effect     coral      leaven     pure

  addition   descent    neither    radish
    edition    dissent    nether     reddish

    assay      emerge     pasture    sentry
    essay      immerge    pastor     century

    baron      Francis    pillar     sit
    barren     Frances    pillow     set

    been       jest       point      wrench
    bean       just       pint       rinse
               gist

Enunciate the consonant sounds carefully in the following. Distinguish between the meanings of the words in each group.

    acts         close        treaties     rows
    ax           clothes      treatise     rouse

    advice       crossed      princes      rues
    advise       across       princess     ruse

    alms         formerly     prince       either
    elms         formally     prints       ether

    bodice       grays        price        running
    bodies       grace        prize        ruin

    cease        lose         recent       walking
    seize        loose        resent       walk in

    chance       plaintive    sects        weather
    chants       plaintiff    sex          whether

    does         pair         news         worst
    dose         payer        noose        worsted (yarn

Pronounce the following, making sure that each syllable is correct. Guard against slurring the words in the last column.

    been       such       barrel     Did you?
    gone       put        faucet     Don't you?
    to         with       suburb     Go on.
    for        tiny       hearth     Our education
    aunt       and        nothing    You are
    far        poem       office     You're not
    our        catch      peril      We're coming
    kept       toward     forbade    They're coming
    says       donkey     spirit     What did you say?
    rid        again      semi       Where are you going?
    since      against    scared     Where have you been?
    sleek      honest     saucy      I want to go.
    creek      savage     turnip     I'm going to go.
    where      swept      roof       To-morrow morning
    boil       velvet     proof      Next month
    hoist      direct     hydrant    Last Saturday


Sunday, August 21, 2016

BUSINESS ENGLISH-PART I--WORD STUDY AND GRAMMAR

BUSINESS ENGLISH

INTERESTING WORDS

BUSINESS English is the expression of our commercial life in English. It is not synonymous with letter writing. To be sure, business letters are important, but they form only a part of one of the two large divisions into which the subject naturally falls.

First, there is _oral expression_, important because so many of our business transactions are conducted personally. Thousands of salesmen daily move from place to place over the entire country, earning their salaries by talking convincingly of the goods that they have to sell. A still greater number of clerks, salesmen, managers, and officials orally transact business in our shops, stores, offices, and banks. Complaints are adjusted; difficulties are disentangled; and affairs of magnitude are consummated in personal interviews, the matter under discussion often being thought too important to be entrusted to correspondence. In every business oral English is essential.

Second, there is _written expression_. This takes account of the writing of advertisements, circulars, booklets, and prospectuses, as well as of letters. And in the preparation of these oral English is fundamental. It precedes and practically includes the written expression. For example, we say colloquially that a good advertisement "talks." We mean that the writer has so fully realized the buyer's point of view that the words of the advertisement seem to speak directly to the reader, arousing his interest or perhaps answering his objection. Oral English is
fundamental, too, in the writing of letters, for most letters are dictated and not written. The correspondent dictates them to his stenographer or to a recording machine in the same tone, probably, that he would use if the customer were sitting before him.

But in taking this point of view, we should not minimize the importance of written business English. In a way, it is more difficult to write well than it is to talk well. In talking we are not troubled with the problems of correct spelling, proper punctuation, and good paragraphing. We may even repeat somewhat, if only we are persuasive. But in writing we are confronted with the necessity of putting the best thoughts into the clearest, most concise language, at the same time obeying all the rules of spelling, punctuation, and grammar. The business man must be sure of these details in order to know that his letters and advertising matter are correct. The stenographer, especially, must be thoroughly familiar with them, so that she may correctly transcribe what has been dictated.

Business English is much the same as any other English. It consists in expression by means of words, sentences, and paragraphs. Moreover, they are much the same kind of words, sentences, and paragraphs that appear in any book that is written in what is commonly called the literary style. In a business letter the words are largely those of every day use, and but few are technical. It is the manner in which the words are put together, the idea back of the sentence, that makes the only difference.

We shall begin the study of business English with a study of words, for in all expression, whether oral or written, a knowledge of words, of their meaning and suggestive power, is fundamental. On the choice of words depends not only the correctness but also the effectiveness of expression--the courtesy of a letter, the appeal of an advertisement, the persuasiveness of a salesman's talk. A mastery of words cannot be gained at once. Every time one speaks, he must consider what words will best convey his idea. In this chapter only the barest beginning of such study can be made. The exercises show the value of the subject.


The study of words is interesting because words themselves are interesting. Sometimes the interest consists in the story of the derivation. As an example, consider the word _italic_. Many words in this book are written in italic to draw attention to them. Literally the word means "relating to Italy or its people." It is now applied to a kind of type in which the letters slope toward the right. The type was   called italic because it was dedicated to the states of Italy by the inventor, Manutius, about the year 1500. An unabridged dictionary will tell all about the word.

The word _salary_ tells a curious story. It is derived from a Latin word, _salarium_, meaning "salt money." It was the name of the money that was given to the Roman soldiers for salt, which was a part of their pay. Finally, instead of signifying only the salt money, it came to mean the total pay.

Practically all of this information a good dictionary gives. In other words, a dictionary is a story book containing not one, but hundreds of thousands of stories. Whenever possible it tells what language a word came from, how it got its different meanings, and how those meanings have changed in the course of time. For it is natural that words should change just as styles change, names of ancient things being lost and names for new things being made. As the objects themselves have gone out of use, their names have also gone. When a word has gone entirely out of use, it is marked _obsolete_ in the dictionary. On the other hand, new inventions must be named. Thus new words are constantly being added to the language and the dictionary because they are needed.

There is a large class of words that we shall not have time to consider. They are called _technical_. Every profession, business, or trade has its distinctive words. The technical words that a printer would use are entirely different from those which a dentist, a bookkeeper, or a lawyer would use. You will learn the technical terms of your business most thoroughly after you enter it and see the use for
such terms.

None of the words, therefore, that you will be asked to search out in the dictionary are, strictly speaking, technical. It is evident that it will do you no good to search out the words in the dictionary, unless you learn them--unless you use them correctly in speaking and writing. There is pleasure in thus employing new material, as everybody knows. Use your eyes and ears. When you hear a new word, or read one, focus the mind upon it for a moment until you can retain a mental picture of its spelling and of its pronunciation. Then as soon as possible look it up in the dictionary to fix its spelling, pronunciation, and definition. Do this regularly, and you will have reason to be proud of your vocabulary.

An excellent way to increase the number of words that you know is to read the right kind of books. The careful study of the words used in the speeches and addresses of noted men is good practice. The conditions that called forth the speech were probably important, and the speech itself interesting, or it would not be preserved. When a man has an interesting or important message to give, he usually gives it in clear, exact, simple language. Therefore the vocabulary that he uses is worth copying. As for stories, there is a kind that furnishes a wealth of material that modern authors are constantly using or referring to, and this is found in stories of the Bible, stories of Greek and Northern gods and goddesses, stories of the _Iliad_, the _Odyssey_, the _Æneid_, stories of chivalry--all old stories. Every one should know them well, because they are the basis of many allusions in which a single word oftentimes suggests a whole story. The meaning of the word _herculean_, for instance, is missed if you do not know the story of Hercules and know that he was famous for his strength.


=Exercise 1=

_Atlas_ is an interesting word. Originally it was the name of a Greek god, who carried the world on his shoulders. Then it is supposed that in the sixteenth century the famous geographer Mercator prefixed his collection of maps with the picture of Atlas supporting the world. Thus a collection of maps in a volume came to be called an _atlas_. Consult  an unabridged dictionary for the origin of each of the following:

    rival       fortune     cereal      boycott
    dollar      finance     china       derrick
    bankrupt    milliner    java        mercury
    cash        pullman     cashmere    colossal
    mint        grocer      macadam     turbine

=Exercise 2=

The days of the week and the months of the year are interesting in their derivation. Monday, for example, represents the day sacred to the Moon as a deity. Explain the origin of each of the following:

    Sunday       Saturday     May          October
    Tuesday      January      June         November
    Wednesday    February     July         December
    Thursday     March        August
    Friday       April        September


=Exercise 3=

Look up the derivation of the following:

    cancel        bead          ambition      hospital
    pecuniary     paper         influence     pavilion
    cheat         book          virtue        mackintosh
    speculation   bayonet       peevish       chapel
    phaëton       tawdry        disaster      omnibus


=Exercise 4=

Explain the origin of each of the following:

    curfew        tulip         turquoise     good-bye
    pompadour     aster         amethyst      dismal
    hyacinth      dunce         tantalize     titanic
    dandelion     humor         umbrella      volcano
    dahlia        villain       sandwich      tangle
    begonia       echo          lunatic       babble

=Exercise 5=

Name the image that each of the following suggests to you:

    howl        sputter     rasping     munch
    skim        prance      clatter     trickle
    squeal      click       wheeze      shuffle
    moan        thud        trudge      bulge
    squeak      patter      chuckle     gobble
    squawk      spatter     toddling    swish


=Exercise 6=

Bring to class a list of words which, because they are the names of modern inventions, have come into the language in modern time.


=Exercise 7=

How many words can you name which might be called the technical terms of school life, words which always carry with them a suggestion of the school room? Bring in a list of twenty such words.


=Exercise 8=

How many words can you name which are used only in the business world? Bring in a list of twenty such words.


=Exercise 9=

How many words can you name which apply particularly to money and the payment or non-payment of money? Bring in a list of twenty or more such words.



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