Wednesday, April 13, 2011

How to write bibliography and reference with example

D. Writing

I. Writing Bibliography and References

A bibliography is a compilation of or a list of information of the works of a specific author or publisher. It could also be a list of writings relating to a given subject:e.g. a Bibliography of Latin American History. It is also a list of writings used or considered by an author in preparing a particular work.

The reader must be able to trace the works you have used. Therefore you should add a bibliography in which you provide as much information as possible about the books or articles. The books and articles must be presented in alphabetical order. The items marked * must always be mentioned.

1. Books

*Name of author (if more than 3, give the 1st + “et al.”)
*Title of book (italics or underlined)
Name of editor or translator, if any
Number of edition, if other than the first
*Place of publication (if no place is given, write “n.p.”)
*Name of publisher (if no publisher is given, write “n.p.”)
*Date of publication (if no date is given, write “n.d.”)


Cannon, T., The World of Business, Chicago: University of Chicago
Press, 1989.

Wit, T., et al., A Study on Recession, edited by W. Roos, translated
by F. Baker, 2nd ed., London: Blackpool Press, 1998.

2. Articles

*Name of author (if unknown, start with the title)
*Title of article (in quotation marks)
*Name of magazine (italics or underlined)
*Volume number (if the magazine is issued weekly or monthly)
*Date of issue


Simeonova, V., “The Bulgarian Solution?”, Time 152, 28
September 1998.
Bush, R., “Agriculture in Jeopardy”, The Middle East 211, May
“Getting General Motors Going Again”, The Economist 323, 2
May 1992.
The bibliographic entry for the example given will look like this:
Stewart, D. M. Bluff your way in publishing. Horsham: Ravette,

Task:Write a 300 word essay on “Blood Circulation” and make
a bibliography of 5 books you read or referred to as shown
in the example above.

II. Interpreting non-verbal data

In everyday life very often you will be confronted with information that is not written or is different from the conventional way of representing information, i.e. in writing or in speech. This
kind of information in the form of graphs, charts, maps, tables and even photographs is called non-verbal data. It is necessary to be able to interpret this kind of data and it calls for a different kind of orientation.

Task 1: Given below are a few examples of non-verbal data. Go
through the different diagrams and answer the questions
that follow.

The pie chart below is a diagrammatic representation of a study conducted to find out the opinion of children, both boys and girls, on censorship and its effectiveness.
The question asked was: Does censorship protect kids from
material that is inappropriate for them?
The total number of boys who took part in the survey was:1,931
The total number of ……. who took part in the survey was:1,716
The percentage of boys who agreed that censorship protects them
was: 35%
The percentage of girls who disagreed were: ………….
The percentage of …….. who agreed were: …………
The percentage of ………… who ………… were: 65%
The boys sample had ……….. more respondents than the girls.
Looking at the percentages what do you think is the final
outcome of the survey?

Task 2: Study the following graph and interpret the data
represented. Then write a short descriptive passage
stating all the relevant information.

Task 3: Study the graph below and write 6 statements on the
information represented.

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