Sunday, July 31, 2016

Grammar-The chief classes of words thus variously used are (1) nouns and adjectives, (2) nouns and verbs, (3) adjectives and adverbs, (4) adjectives and pronouns, (5) adverbs and prepositions.


The meaning of a word in the sentence determines to what part of speech it belongs.

The same word may be sometimes one part of speech, sometimes another.

Words of entirely separate origin, meaning, and use sometimes look and sound alike: as in “The minstrel sang a plaintive lay  ,” and “He lay   on the ground.” But the following examples (§ 25) show that the same word may have more than one kind of grammatical office (or function). It is the   meaning   which we give to a word   in the sentence   that determines its classification as a part of speech.

The chief classes of words thus variously used are (1) nouns and adjectives, (2) nouns and verbs, (3) adjectives and adverbs, (4) adjectives and pronouns, (5) adverbs and prepositions.


                NOUNS                                  ADJECTIVES

  Rubber  comes  from   South   America.                     This wheel has a rubber tire.

  That brick  is yellow.                   Here is a  brick house.

  The  rich  have a grave   responsibility.                 A  rich  merchant lives here.

The first two examples show how words that are commonly nouns may be used as adjectives; the third shows how words that are commonly adjectives may be used as nouns.


  NOUNS                                         VERBS

  Hear the wash   of the tide.                  Wash   those windows.

  Give me a stamp  .                     Stamp   this envelope.

  It is the call   of the sea.                    Ye call   me chief.

  Other examples are: act, address, ally, answer, boast, care, cause,   close, defeat, doubt, drop, heap, hope, mark, offer, pile, place,   rest, rule, sail, shape, sleep, spur, test, watch, wound.


        ADJECTIVES                                                            ADVERBS

     That is a fast   boat                                          The snow is melting fast

    Draw a straight   line.                                        The arrow flew straight  .

  Early   comers get good seats.                             Tom awoke early  .


          ADJECTIVES                             PRONOUNS

  This   man looks unhappy.                                This   is the sergeant.

  That   book is a dictionary.                        That   is a kangaroo.

  Each   day brings its opportunity.                 I received a dollar from each  .



  ADVERBS                                                PREPOSITIONS

  Jill came tumbling after  .                  He returned after   the accident.

  We went below  .                           Below   us lay the valley.

  The weeds sprang up  .                    We walked up   the hill.

  Other examples are: aboard, before, beyond, down, inside, underneath.

Miscellaneous examples of variation are the following:--

  NOUN.       The calm   lasted for three days.

ADJECTIVE.  Calm   words show quiet minds.

  VERB.       Calm   your angry friend.

  Other examples are: iron, stone, paper, sugar, salt, bark, quiet,   black, light, head, wet, round, square, winter, spring.

  NOUN.          Wrong   seldom prospers.

  ADJECTIVE.     You have taken the wrong   road.

  ADVERB.        Edward often spells words wrong
  VERB.          You wrong   me by your suspicions.

  NOUN.          The outside   of the castle is gloomy.

  ADJECTIVE.     We have an outside   stateroom.

  ADVERB.        The messenger is waiting outside  .

  PREPOSITION.   I shall ride outside   the coach.

  ADJECTIVE.     That   boat is a sloop.

  PRONOUN.       That   is my uncle.

  CONJUNCTION.   You said that   you would help me.

 ADJECTIVE.     Neither   road leads to Utica.

  PRONOUN.       Neither   of us arrived in time.

  CONJUNCTION.   Neither   Tom nor I was late.

  PREPOSITION.   I am waiting for   the train.

  CONJUNCTION.   You have plenty of time, for   the train is late.

  INTERJECTION.  Hurrah!   the battle is won.

  NOUN.          I heard a loud hurrah  .

  VERB.          The enemy flees. Our men hurrah  .


Two classes of verb-forms illustrate in a striking way the fact   that the same word may belong to different parts of speech; for they really belong to two different parts of speech at one and the same time. These are the   infinitive   (which is both   verb   and   noun  ) and the   participle   (which is both   verb   and   adjective  ).

 Examples of the   infinitive   may be seen in the following   sentences;

  To struggle   was useless.

  To escape   is impossible.

  To exercise   regularly preserves the health.

  To struggle   is clearly a   noun  , for (1) it is the subject of the sentence, and (2) the noun effort   or exertion   might be put in the place of to struggle  . Similarly, the noun escape   might be substituted for to escape  ; and, in the third sentence, regular exercise   (a noun modified by an adjective) might be substituted for   to exercise regularly  .

But these three forms (  to struggle  , to escape  , and to exercise  ) are also   verbs  , for they express action, and one of them (  to exercise  ) is modified by an adverb (  regularly  ). Such forms, therefore, are noun-forms of the verb. They are classed with verbs, and are called   infinitives  .

The infinitive is a verb-form which partakes of the nature of a noun. It is commonly preceded by the preposition to  , which is called the sign of the infinitive.

The infinitive without to   is used in a great variety of verb-phrases.

  I shall go  .

  John will win  .

  Mary may recite  .

  Jack can swim  .

Such phrases will be studied in connection with the inflection of verbs.

  NOTE. That go  , win  , recite  , and swim   are infinitives may be   seen by comparing the following sentences:--“I intend to go  ,” “John   is sure to win  ,” “Mary is permitted to recite  ,” “Jack is able to   swim  .”

 The following sentence contains two   participles  :--

  Shattered   and slowly sinking  , the frigate drifted out to sea.

In this sentence, we recognize shattered   as a form of the   verb   shatter  , and sinking   as a form of the   verb   sink  . They both express action, and sinking   is modified by the adverb slowly  . But shattered   and sinking   have also the nature of   adjectives  , for they are used to describe the noun frigate  . Such words, then, are adjective forms of the verb. They are classed as verbs, and are called   participles  , because they share (or participate in) the nature of adjectives.

The participle is a verb-form which has no subject, but which partakes of the nature of an adjective and expresses action or state in such a way as to describe or limit a substantive.

A participle is said to   belong to   the substantive which it describes or limits.

The chief classes of participles are   present participles   and   past participles  , so called from the time which they denote.

All present participles end in ing  . Past participles have several different endings, which will be studied in connection with the inflection of verbs

 participles are used in a variety of verb-phrases.

  Tom is coming  .

  Our boat was wrecked  .

  I have sent   the money.

  He has brought   me a letter.

  Your book is found  .

  They have sold   their horses.

  You have broken   your watch.

  The ship had struck   on the reef.

Such phrases will be studied in connection with the inflection of verbs.

  NOTE. The double nature of the infinitive (as both verb and noun)   and the participle (as both verb and adjective) almost justifies   one in classifying each as a distinct part of speech (so as to make   ten parts of speech instead of eight). But it is more convenient to   include them under the head of verbs, in accordance with the usual   practice.


 Our survey of the eight parts of speech has shown, (1) that these have very different offices or functions in the sentence, and (2) that their functions are not of equal importance.

Clearly, the most important parts of speech are   substantives   (nouns and pronouns) and   verbs  .

Substantives enable us to   name or designate   persons, places, or things, and verbs enable us to   make statements   about them. Both substantives and verbs, then, are absolutely necessary in framing sentences. Without a substantive, there can be no   subject  ; without a verb, there can be no   predicate  : and both a subject and a predicate, as we have seen, are needed to make a sentence.

  Adjectives   and   adverbs   are less important than substantives and verbs. Their function is to   modify   other parts of speech, that is, to  change their meaning in some way. Thus adjectives modify substantives (by describing or limiting), and adverbs usually modify verbs (by indicating how  , when  , or where   the action took place). Without substantives, there would be no use for adjectives; without verbs, there would be little use for adverbs.

  Prepositions   and   conjunctions   are also less important than substantives and verbs. Their office is to connect and to show relation. Of course, there would be no place for connectives if there were nothing to connect.

  Interjections   are the least important of all. They add liveliness to language, but they are not actual necessities. We could express all the thoughts that enter our minds without ever using an interjection.

 A sentence may consist of but two words,--a noun or pronoun (the subject) and a verb (the predicate). Thus,--

  Charles | swims.

Commonly, however, either the subject or the predicate, or both, will contain more than one word. Thus,--

  Young Charles | swims slowly.

Here the   complete subject   (  young Charles  ) consists of a noun (  Charles  ) and an adjective (  young  ), which describes Charles  .
The   complete predicate   consists of a verb (  swims  ) and an adverb (  slowly  ), which modifies swim   by indicating how   the action is performed. The subject noun (  Charles  ) and the predicate verb (  swims  ) are the chief words in the sentence, for neither could be omitted without destroying it. They form, so to speak, the frame or skeleton of the whole. Either of the two modifiers, the adjective or the adverb, or both, might be omitted, without destroying the sentence; for this would still exist as the expression of a thought (  Charles swims  ), though the thought would be less definite and exact than it is when the modifiers are included.

The simple subject of a sentence is a noun or pronoun.

  The simple predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb-phrase.

  The simple subject, with such words as explain or complete its meaning, forms the complete  subject.

  The simple predicate, with such words as explain or complete its meaning, forms the complete predicate.

In each of the following sentences the   complete subject   and the   complete predicate   are separated by a vertical line, and the   simple subject   and the   simple predicate   are printed in italics:--

  The spider   | spreads   her web.

  The fiery smoke   | rose   upward in billowing volumes.

  A nameless unrest   | urged   me forward.

  Our frantic horses   | swept   round an angle of the road.

  The infirmities   of age | came   early upon him.

 The general feeling   among the English in Bengal | was   strongly in   favor of the Governor General.

  Salutes   | were fired   from the batteries.

  The Clives   | had been settled   ever since the twelfth century on   an estate of no great value near Market Drayton in Shropshire.

  I   | have written   repeatedly to Mr. Hobhouse.    

Two or more simple subjects may be joined to make one   compound

subject  , and two or more simple predicates to make one   compound predicate  .

  1. Charles   and Henry   | play tennis well.

  2. Moore   and I   | passed some merry days together.

  3. Frances   and she   | are friends.

  4. Hats  , caps  , boots  , and gloves   | were piled together in   confusion.

  5. The watch | sank   and was lost  .

  6. The balloon | rose   higher and higher and finally disappeared  .

  7. He | neither smiled   nor frowned  .

  8. Snow   and ice   | covered   the ground and made   our progress   difficult.

.A compound subject or predicate consists of two or more simple subjects or predicates, joined, when necessary, by conjunctions.

 Either the subject or the predicate, or both, may be compound.

In the first example in § 37, two simple subjects (  Charles   and Henry  ) are joined by the conjunction and   to make a compound subject. In the fourth, four substantives (  hats  , caps  , boots  , gloves  ) form a series in which the last two are joined by and  . In the fifth, sixth, and seventh, the predicates are compound; in the  eighth, both the subject and the predicate.

 The following conjunctions may be used to join the members of a compound subject or predicate: and   (  both   ... and  ), or   (  either   ... or  ; whether   ... or  ), nor   (  neither   ... nor  ).

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