Thursday, July 28, 2016

THE PARTS OF SPEECH IN THE SENTENCE-Noun,pronouns,adjectives, verb, adverb, preposition , conjunctions ,interjections.


The Sentence: Subject and Predicate; Kinds of   Sentences.--Use of words in the Sentence: the Eight Parts of Speech;   Infinitives and Participles.--Comparative Importance of the Parts   of Speech in the Sentence: the Subject Noun (or Simple Subject);   the Predicate Verb (or Simple Predicate); Compound Subject and   Predicate.--Substitutes for the Parts of Speech: Phrases; Clauses;   Compound and Complex Sentences.


1.A sentence is a group of words which expresses a complete thought.+

  Fire burns.

  Wolves howl.

  Rain is falling.

  Charles is courageous.

  Patient effort removes mountains.

  London is the largest city in the world.

  A man who respects himself should never condescend to use slovenly   language.

Some of these sentences are short, expressing a very simple thought;

others are comparatively long, because the thought is more complicated and therefore requires more words for its expression. But every one of them, whether short or long, is complete in itself. It comes to a definite end, and is followed by a full pause.

2. Every sentence, whether short or long, consists of two parts,--a +subject+ and a +predicate+.

The subject of a sentence designates the person, place, or thing that is spoken of; the predicate is that which is said of the subject.

  Thus, in the first example in § 1, the subject is _fire_ and the   predicate is _burns_. In the third, the subject is _rain_; the   predicate, _is   falling_. In the last, the subject is _a man who   respects himself_; the predicate, _should never condescend to use   slovenly language_.

Either the subject or the predicate may consist of a single word or of a number of words. But neither the subject by itself nor the predicate by itself, however extended, is a sentence. The mere mention of a thing (_fire_) does not express a complete thought. Neither does a mere assertion (_burns_), if we neglect to mention the person or thing about which the assertion is made. Thus it appears that both a subject and a  predicate are necessary to make a sentence.

3.Sentences may be declarative, interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory.

1. A declarative sentence declares or asserts something as a fact.

  Dickens wrote “David Copperfield.”

  The army approached the city.

2. An interrogative sentence asks a question.+

  Who is that officer?

  Does Arthur Moore live here?

3. An imperative sentence expresses a command or a request.+

  Open the window.

  Pronounce the vowels more distinctly.

4. An exclamatory sentence expresses surprise, grief, or some other emotion in the form of an exclamation or cry.
  How calm the sea is!

  What a noise the engine makes!

A declarative, an interrogative, or an imperative sentence is also +exclamatory+, if it is uttered in an intense or excited tone of voice.

4. In imperative sentences, the subject (_thou_ or _you_) is almost always omitted, because it is +understood+ by both speaker and   hearer without being expressed.

  Such omitted words, which are present (_in idea_) to the minds of   both speaker and hearer, are said to be “understood.” Thus, in “Open   the window,” the subject is “_you_ (understood).” If expressed, the   subject would be emphatic: as,--“_You_ open the window.”

 5.The subject of a sentence commonly precedes the predicate, but sometimes the predicate  precedes.

  Here comes Tom.

  Next came Edward.

  Over went the carriage.

A sentence in which the predicate precedes the subject is said to be in the +inverted order+. This order is especially common in interrogative

  Where is your boat?

  When was your last birthday?

  Whither wander you?--SHAKSPERE.


6. If we examine the words in any sentence, we observe that they have different tasks or duties to perform in the expression of thought.

  Savage beasts roamed through the forest.

In this sentence, _beasts_ and _forest_ are the +names+ of objects; _roamed_ +asserts action+, telling us what the beasts _did_; _savage_ +describes+ the beasts; _through_ shows the +relation+ in thought between _forest_ and _roamed_; _the_ +limits+ the meaning of _forest_, showing that one particular forest is meant. Thus each of these words  has its +special office+ (or +function+) +in the sentence+.

7. In accordance with their use in the sentence, words are divided into eight classes called parts of speech,--namely, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections.


8.A noun is the name of a person, place, or thing.

  EXAMPLES: Lincoln, William, Elizabeth, sister, engineer, Chicago,   island, shelf, star, window, happiness, anger, sidewalk, courage,   loss, song.


9.A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun. It designates a person, place, or thing without naming it.

  In “_I_ am ready,” the pronoun _I_ is a convenient substitute for   the speaker’s name. In “_You_ have forgotten _your_ umbrella,”   the pronouns _you_ and _your_ designate the person to whom one is   speaking.

  Other pronouns are: _he_, _his_, _him_; _she_, _hers_, _her_; _it_,   _its_; _this_, _that_; _who_, _whose_, _whom_, _which_; _myself_,   _yourself_, _himself_, _themselves_.

Since pronouns stand for nouns, they enable us to talk about a person, place, or thing without constantly repeating the name.

10.Nouns and pronouns are called substantives.

Nouns and pronouns are very similar in their use. The difference between them is merely that the noun designates a person, place, or thing by +naming+ it, and that the pronoun +designates+, but does not +name+. Hence it is convenient to have a general term (+substantive  +) to include both these parts of speech.

11.The substantive to which a pronoun refers is called its antecedent

  _Frank_ introduced the boys to _his_ father. [_Frank_ is the   antecedent of the pronoun _his_.]

  _Eleanor_ is visiting _her_ aunt.

  The _book_ has lost _its_ cover.

  The _trappers_ sat round _their_ camp fire.

  _Washington_ and _Franklin_ served _their_ country in different ways.
  [_Their_ has two antecedents, connected by _and_.]


12  . An adjective is a word which describes or limits a    substantive.

This it usually does by indicating some quality.

+An adjective is said to belong to the substantive which it describes or limits.

13. An adjective limits a substantive by restricting the range of its meaning.

  The noun _box_, for example, includes a great variety of objects. If   we say _wooden_ box, we exclude boxes of metal, of paper, etc. If we   use a second adjective (_small_) and a third (_square_), we limit the   size and the shape of the box.

Most adjectives (like _wooden_, _square_, and _small_) +describe+ as well as limit. Such words are called +descriptive adjectives+.

We may, however, limit the noun _box_ to a single specimen by means of the adjective _this_ or _that_ or _the_, which does not +describe+,

but simply points out, or +designates+. Such words are called +definitive adjectives+.[6]


14  . A verb is a word which can assert something (usually an action) concerning a person, place, or thing.

  The wind _blows_.

  The horses _ran_.

  The fire _blazed_.

  Her jewels _sparkled_.

  Tom _climbed_ a tree.

  The dynamite _exploded_.

Some verbs express state or condition rather than action.

  The treaty still _exists_.

  The book _lies_ on the table.

 Near the church _stood_ an elm.

  My aunt _suffers_ much from headache.

15.A group of words may be needed, instead of a single verb, to make an assertion.

A group of words that is used as a verb is called a verb-phrase.+

  You _will see_.

  The tree _has fallen_.

  We _might have invited_ her.

  Our driver _has been discharged_.

16. Certain verbs, when used to make verb-phrases, are called +auxiliary+ (that is, “aiding”) +verbs+, because they help other verbs to express action or state of some particular kind.

  Thus, in “You _will see_,” the auxiliary verb _will_ helps _see_   to express +future+ action; in “We _might have invited_ her,” the   auxiliaries _might_ and _have_ help _invited_ to express action that   was +possible+ in past time.

The auxiliary verbs are _is_ (_are_, _was_, _were_, etc.), _may_, _can_, _must_, _might_, _shall_, _will_, _could_, _would_, _should_, _have_, _had_, _do_, _did_. Their forms and uses will be studied in connection with the inflection of verbs.

The auxiliary verb regularly comes first in a verb-phrase, and may be separated from the rest of it by some other word or words.

  Where _was_ Washington _born_?

  The boat _was_ slowly but steadily _approaching_.

17._Is_ (in its various forms) and several other verbs may be used to frame sentences in which some word or words in the predicate describe or define the subject.

  1. Gold _is_ a metal.

  2. Charles _is_ my friend’s name.

  3. The colors of this butterfly _are_ brilliant.

  4. Iron _becomes_ red in the fire.

  5. Our condition _seemed_ desperate.

  6. Bertram _proved_ a good friend in this emergency.

  7. My soul _grows_ sad with troubles.--SHAKSPERE.

In the first sentence, the verb _is_ not only +makes an assertion+, but it also +connects+ the rest of the predicate (_a metal_) with the subject (_gold_) in such a way that _a metal_ serves as a description or definition of _gold_.

In sentences 4–7, _becomes_, _seemed_, _proved_, and _grows_ are similarly used.

In such sentences _is_ and other verbs that are used for the same purpose are called +copulative+ (that is, “joining”) +verbs+.

  _Is_ in this use is often called the +copula+, that is, the “joiner”   or “link.”

The forms of the verb _is_ are very irregular. Among the commonest are: _am_, _is_, _are_, _was_, _were_, and the verb-phrases _has   been_, _have been_, _had been_, _shall be_, _will be_.


 18  .An adverb is a word which modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.+

  To +modify+ a word is to change or affect its meaning in some way.

  Thus in “The river fell _rapidly_,” the adverb _rapidly_ modifies   the verb _fell_ by showing _how_ the falling took place. In “I am
  _never_ late,” “This is _absolutely_ true,” “That is _too_ bad,”   the italicized words are adverbs modifying adjectives; in “He came
  _very_ often,” “He spoke _almost_ hopefully,” “The river fell _too_   rapidly,” they are adverbs modifying other adverbs.

Most adverbs answer the question “How?” “When?” “Where?” or “To what degree or extent?”

19. Observe that adverbs modify verbs in much the same way in which adjectives modify nouns.

  ADJECTIVES                                                 ADVERBS

  A _bright_ fire burned.                            The fire burned _brightly_.
  A _fierce_ wind blew.                             The wind blew _fiercely_.

A word or group of words that changes or modifies the meaning of another word is called a modifier.+

Adjectives and adverbs, then, are both +modifiers+. Adjectives modify substantives; adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.


20.  A preposition is a word placed before a substantive to show its  relation to some other word in the sentence.+

 The substantive which follows a preposition is called its object.+

A preposition is said to +govern+ its object.

  In “The surface _of_ the water glistened,” _of_ makes it clear that   _surface_ belongs with _water_. In “Philip is _on_ the river,” _on_
  shows Philip’s position with respect to the river. _In_, or _near_,   or _beyond_ would have indicated a different relation. _Water_ is
  the object of the preposition _of_, and _river_ is the object of the 
  preposition _on_. 

21.A preposition often has more than one object.

  Over _hill_ and _dale_ he ran.

  He was filled with _shame_ and _despair_.


22. A conjunction connects words or groups of words.+

A conjunction differs from a preposition in having no object, and in indicating a less definite relation between the words which it connects.

  In “Time _and_ tide wait for no man,” “The parcel was small _but_    heavy,” “He wore a kind of doublet _or_ jacket,” the conjunctions   _and_, _but_, _or_, connect single words,--_time_ with _tide_,   _small_ with _heavy_, _doublet_ with _jacket_. In “Do not go _if_ you   are afraid,” “I came _because_ you sent for me,” “Take my key, _but_   do not lose it,” “Sweep the floor _and_ dust the furniture,” each   conjunction connects the entire group of words preceding it with the   entire group following it.


23.An interjection is a cry or other exclamatory sound expressing surprise, anger, pleasure, or some other emotion or feeling.+

Interjections usually have no grammatical connection with the groups of words in which they stand; hence their name, which means “thrown in.”

  EXAMPLES: _Oh!_ I forgot. _Ah_, how I miss you! _Bravo!_ _Alas!_

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