Thursday, August 18, 2016

part 2 - OBJECTIVE CASE,1. Direct Object,2. Predicate Objective


The  objective case , as its name implies, is the case of the  object . Most of its uses are covered by the following rule:--

 The object of a verb or preposition is in the objective case.

The object of a preposition has already been explained and defined

.  The  object of a verb  may be (1) the direct object, (2) the predicate objective, (3) the indirect object, (4) the cognate object. Of these the direct object is the most important.

The objective is also used (5) adverbially , (6) in apposition with another objective and (7) as the subject of an infinitive

1. Direct Object

   Some verbs may be followed by a substantive denoting that which receives the action or is produced by it. These are called transitive
verbs. All other verbs are called intransitive.

  1. That man  struck  my  dog .

  2. The arrow  hit  the  target .

  3. Cæsar  conquered Gaul .

  4. Mr. Holland  sells flour .

  5. The farmer  raises corn .

  6. Mr. Eaton  makes stoves .

  7. My grandfather  built  that  house .

In Nos. 1–4, the verb is followed by a noun denoting the  receiver of the action . Thus, in the first sentence, the  dog  receives the blow; in the second, the  target  receives the action of hitting. In Nos. 5–7, the verb is followed by a noun denoting the  product  of the action. For example, the  corn  is  produced  by the action expressed by the verb  raises .

In each example, the noun that follows the verb  completes the sense  of the verb. “That man  struck  ----.” “Struck  whom ?” “He struck the  dog .” Until  dog  is added the sense of the verb  struck  is incomplete.

   A substantive that completes the meaning of a transitive verb is called its direct object, and is said to be in the objective case.

  Thus, in the examples above,  dog  is the direct object of the   transitive verb  struck ;  target  is the direct object of    hit ,--and so on. Each of these nouns is therefore in the  objective   case .

   The direct object is often called the object complement, or the   object of the verb.

 Intransitive verbs have no object.

  The lion  roared .

  The visitor  coughed  gently.

  The log  drifted  downstream.

  We all  listened  intently.

Compare these sentences with those in § 99. We observe that the verbs (unlike those in § 99) admit no object, since their meaning is complete without the addition of any noun to denote the receiver or product of the action. “The man  struck ----” prompts the inquiry, “Struck  whom ?” But no such question is suggested by “The lion  roared ”; for “Roared  what ?” would be an absurdity.

 The  predicate nominative   must not be confused with the  direct object . They resemble each other in two particulars: (1) both stand in the predicate, and (2) both complete the meaning of the verb. But they differ utterly in their relation to the subject of the sentence. For--

The  predicate nominative  describes or defines the  subject . Hence both substantives denote the same person or thing.

  Charles [SUBJECT] {is | was | became | was elected}  captain    [PREDICATE NOMINATIVE].

The  direct object  neither describes nor defines the subject. On the  contrary, it designates that upon which the subject acts. Hence the two substantives regularly[18] denote different persons or things.

  Charles [SUBJECT] {struck  James  [OBJECT]. | threw a  stone    [OBJECT]. | built a  boat  [OBJECT].}

Both the direct object and the predicate nominative are classed as  complements , because they are used to complete the sense of the predicate verb

  A verb of  asking  sometimes takes  two direct objects , one denoting the  person  and the other the  thing .

 She asked the  boy  his  name .

  Ask  me  no  favors .

  I asked the  lawyer  his  opinion .

2. Predicate Objective

   Verbs of  choosing ,  calling ,  naming ,  making , and  thinking  may take two objects referring to the same person or thing.

 The first of these is the direct object, and the second, which completes the sense of the predicate, is called a predicate objective.

  We chose Oscar  president . [ Oscar  is the direct object of  chose ;    president  is the predicate objective.]

  I call John my  friend .

  They thought the man a  coward .

  Make my house your  home .

  The predicate objective is often called the complementary object or   the objective attribute. It is classed as a complement.

An adjective may serve as predicate objective.

  I call this ship  unseaworthy .

  Your letter made your sister  anxious .

  What makes Edwin so  careless ?

3. Indirect Object and Similar Idioms

   Some verbs of  giving ,  telling ,  refusing , and the like, may take two objects, a direct object and an indirect object.

 The indirect object denotes the person or thing toward whom or toward which is directed the action expressed by the rest of the predicate.


  Dick sold his bicycle.    Dick sold  John  his bicycle.
  I gave permission.        I gave this  man  permission.
  He paid a dollar.         He paid the  gardener  a dollar.
  She taught Latin.         She taught my  children  Latin.

Most of the verbs that admit an indirect object are included in the following list:--

  allot, allow, assign, bequeath, bring, deny, ensure, fetch, fling,   forbid, forgive, give, grant, guarantee, hand, lease, leave, lend,   let, owe, pardon, pass, pay, refund, refuse, remit, restore, sell,   send, show, sing, spare, teach, tell, throw, toss, vouchsafe.

Pronouns are commoner as indirect objects than nouns.

  They denied  her  the necessities of life.

  I guaranteed  them  a handsome profit.

  The king vouchsafed  them  an audience.

 It is always possible to insert the preposition  to  before the indirect object without changing the sense.

Since the indirect object is equivalent to an adverbial phrase, it is classed as a modifier of the verb.

  Thus, in “Dick sold  John  his bicycle,”  John  is an adverbial   modifier of the predicate verb  sold .

The indirect object is sometimes used without a direct object expressed. Thus,--

  He paid the hatter.

Here  hatter  may be recognized as an indirect object by inserting    to  before it and adding a direct object (“his  bill ,” “his    money ,” or the like).

 .  The objective case sometimes expresses the person  for whom  anything is done.

  William made his  brother  a kite [= made a kite for his brother].

  Sampson built  me  a boat [= built a boat for me].

This construction may be called the  objective of service .

  NOTE. The objective of service is often included under the head of   the indirect object. But the two constructions differ widely in   sense, and should be carefully distinguished. To do an act  to  a   person is not the same thing as to do an act  for  a person. Contrast   “John paid the money  to  me,” with “John paid the money  for  me”;    “Dick sold a bicycle  to  me,” with “Dick sold a bicycle  for  me.”

 The objective case is used after  like ,  unlike ,  near , and  next , which are really adjectives or adverbs, though in this construction they are often regarded as prepositions.

  She sang like a  bird . [ Like  is an adverb.]

  The earth is like a  ball . [ Like  is an adjective.]

  My office is near the  station . [ Near  is an adjective.]

  That answer was unlike  Joseph . [ Unlike  is an adjective.]

  This man walks unlike  Joseph . [ Unlike  is an adverb.]

  A stream ran near the  hut . [ Near  is an adverb.]

The use of the objective after these words is a peculiar idiom similar to the indirect object (§ 105). The nature of the construction may be
seen (as in the indirect object) by inserting  to  or  unto  (“She sang  like unto  a bird”).

NOTE. The indirect object, the objective of service, and the   objective after  like ,  unlike , and  near  are all survivals of old   dative constructions. Besides the case of the direct object (often   called  accusative ), English once had a case (called the  dative )   which meant  to  or  for  [somebody or something]. The dative case is   easily distinguished in Greek, Latin, and German, but in English it   has long been merged in form with the ordinary objective.

4. Cognate Object

    A verb that is regularly intransitive sometimes takes as object a noun whose meaning closely resembles its own. 

 A noun in this construction is called the cognate object of the verb and is in the objective case. 

  He ran a  race .

  The mayor coughed a dubious, insinuating  cough .

  A scornful  laugh  laughed he.

  The trumpeter blew a loud  blast .

  She sleeps the  sleep  of death.

  NOTE.  Cognate  means “kindred” or “related.” The cognate object   repeats the idea of the verb, often with some modification, and    may be classed as an adverbial modifier. Its difference from the   direct object may be seen by contrasting “The blacksmith struck the    anvil ” with “The blacksmith struck a mighty  blow ” (cf. “struck    mightily ”). For the pronoun  it  as cognate object

5. Adverbial Objective

  A noun, or a phrase consisting of a noun and its modifiers, may be used adverbially. Such a noun is called an adverbial objective. 

  We have waited  years  for this reform.

  I am  years  older than you are.

  The river is  miles  away.

  The water rose  three feet .

  This is  an inch  too long.

  My brother is  twenty years  old.

  I will stay a  short time .

  Wait  a moment .

  Come here  this instant !

  Turn your eyes  this way .

  This silk is  several shades  too light.

A group of words consisting of an adverbial object with its modifier or modifiers forms an  adverbial phrase  

6. Objective in Apposition

  A substantive in apposition with an objective is itself in the objective case.

  Yesterday I saw Williams the  expressman . [Apposition with the   direct object of  saw .]

  Tom gave his friend  John  a book. [Apposition with the indirect  object  friend .]

  He lives with Andrews the  blacksmith . [Apposition with the object   of the preposition  with .]

This rule follows from the general principle that an appositive is in the same case as the substantive to which it is attached 

7. Subject of an Infinitive

 The subject of an infinitive is in the objective case.

This construction will be treated in connection with the uses of the infinitive 


 To  parse  a word is to describe its grammatical form and to give its construction.

In parsing a  noun , we mention the class to which it belongs, give its gender, number, person, and case, and tell why it is in that case. Thus,--

  1. Frank shot a wolf.

   Frank  is a proper noun of the masculine gender, in the singular   number and third person. It is in the nominative case, because it is   the subject of the verb  shot .

   Wolf  is a common noun of the masculine or feminine [or common]   gender, in the singular number and third person. It is in the   objective case, because it is the object [or direct object] of the   transitive verb  shot .

  2. Jane, come here.

   Jane  is a proper noun of the feminine gender, in the singular   number and second person. It is in the nominative case, being used as   a vocative (or in direct address).

  3. The rope is fifteen feet long.

   Feet  is a common noun of the neuter gender, in the plural number   and third person. It is in the objective case, being used as an   adverbial modifier of the adjective  long .

  4. Edgar’s boat is a sloop.

 Edgar’s  is a proper noun of the masculine gender, in the singular   number and third person. It is in the possessive case, modifying the   noun  boat 

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