Thursday, August 25, 2016

part-2 - PRONUNCIATION-Diacritical Marks;Vowels;


WE are judged by our speech. If we clip syllables, run words together, or pronounce them incorrectly, we shall merit the criticism of being careless or even ignorant. Yet clear enunciation and correct pronunciation are sometimes difficult. We learn most words by hearing others say them, and, if we do not hear the true values given to the different syllables, we shall find it hard to distinguish the correct
from the incorrect forms. Children whose parents speak a foreign language usually have to watch their speech with especial care; Germans, for example, find difficulty in saying _th_ and Irish people in saying _oi_ as in _oil_. The exercises in this chapter are given for the purpose of correcting such habits. The words in the exercises should be pronounced repeatedly, until the correct forms are instinctive.

Train the ear to hear the difference between sounds, as in _just_ and in _jest_. Don't slide over the final consonant in such words as _going_ and _reading_. Watch words containing _wh_. The dictionary tells us that _where_ was originally written _hwar_, the _h_ coming before the _w_; and we still pronounce it so, although we write the _w_ before the _h_. The word _whether_ is of the same kind. The dictionary tells us that it was first spelled _hweder_. Such words should be carefully noted and their pronunciation practiced.

Then there is the habit of slurring syllables. We may understand what is meant by the expression "C'm' on" or "Waja say?", but most of us would prefer not to be included in the class of people who use either. Correct speech cannot be mastered without an effort.

In the following exercises watch every vowel and every consonant so that you may give each one its full value.

=Exercise 10--Diacritical Marks=

Although an _a_ is always written _a_, it is not always given the same quality or length of sound. When we discover a new word, it is important that we know exactly the quality to give each of the vowels in it. For this purpose _diacritical marks_ have been invented. They are
illustrated in the following list from Webster's _International Dictionary_.

r, ?r´mine, ev´?r
     _e_  "  "  re´c_e_nt, de´c_e_ncy, pru´d_e_nce
      i   "  "  ice, time, sight, inspire´
     [+i] "  "  [+i]dea´, tr[+i]bu´nal, b[+i]ol´ogy
      i   "  "  ill, pin, pit´y, admit´
      o   "  "  old, note, o´ver, propose´
     [+o] "  "  [+o]bey´, t[+o]bac´co, sor´r[+o]w
      ô   "  "  ôrb, lôrd, ôr´der, abhôr´
      o   "  "  odd, not, tor´rid, occur´
      u   "  "  use, pure, du´ty, assume´
     [+u] "  "  [+u]nite´, ac´t[+u]ate, ed[+u]ca´tion
      ?   "  "  r?de, r?´mor, intr?de´
      ?   "  "  f?ll, p?t, f?lfill´
      u   "  "  up, tub, stud´y
      û   "  "  ûrn, fûr, concûr´
     [)y] "  "  pit´[)y], in´jur[)y], divin´it[)y]
    [=oo] "  "  f[=oo]l, f[=oo]d, m[=oo]n
    [)oo] "  "  f[)oo]t, w[)oo]l, b[)oo]k
      ou  "  "  out, thou, devour´
      oi  "  "  oil, noi´sy, avoid´

 a is called long _a_, and is marked with the _macron_
    a is called short _a_, and is marked with the _breve_
    â is called caret _a_, and is marked with the _caret_
    ä is called Italian _a_, and is marked with the _diaeresis_
    ?  is called short Italian _a_, and is marked with the _dot_
    ? is called tilde _e_, and is marked with the _tilde_ or _wave_

Exercise 11--Vowels=

Of the twenty-six letters in the alphabet, how many are vowels? Name them. What are the other letters called?

Compare the _a_ in _hat_ and the _a_ in _hate_. Which has more nearly the sound of _a_ in the alphabet? This is called the natural or long sound of the vowel. The other is called the short sound.

Drop the _e_ from _hate_. Explain the result.

Name other monosyllables ending in _e_ and containing the long _a_ sound.

Explain the difference in pronunciation between _Pete_, _pet_, _ripe_, _rip_, _hope_, _hop_, _cube_, _cub_.

Find other monosyllables ending in _e_ and containing a long vowel that becomes short if the _e_ is dropped.

=Monosyllables ending in silent _e_ usually contain a long vowel sound, which becomes short when the final _e_ is dropped.=

=Exercise 12=

Pronounce carefully the following words containing the short Italian _a_:

    adv?nce      cl?ss      l?nce     pl?ster
    adv?ntage    contr?st   l?st      p?stor
    ?fter        ench?nt    m?sk      pr?nce
    b?sket       Fr?nce     m?ster    r?fter
    br?nch       gl?nce     m?stiff   sh?ft
    br?ss        gl?ss      p?ss      surp?ss
    ch?ff        gr?ss      p?st      t?sk

Exercise 13=

Pronounce the following carefully, noting each _a_ that is marked:

    hälf         ide?         cälm        audacious
    p?th         c?n't        apricot      ?gh?st
    ?sk          catch        m?dras       algebr?
    fäther       v[+a]cation  agile       forbade
    d?nce        extr?        c?st         tr?nce
    l?ss         c?sket       gr?nt        aviation

=Exercise 14=

Pronounce the vowel _o_ in the following very carefully. Don't give the sound _feller_ or _fella_ when you mean _fellow_.

    fellow      swallow     theory      borrow
    potato      follow      position    heroism
    window      original    factory     donkey
    pillow      evaporate   ivory       memory
    chocolate   mosquito    licorice    oriental

=Exercise 15=

The vowel _u_ needs particular attention. When it is long, it is sounded naturally, as it is in the alphabet. Do not say _redooce_ for _reduce_.

    reduce         picture        educate        figure
    produce        stupid         judicial       duty
    conducive      student        calculate      accumulate
    endure         genuine        curiosity      Tuesday
    duration       induce         regular        particular
    singular       avenue         tune           institute
    nutriment      constitution   culinary       January
    revenue        introduce      opportunity    manufacture

=Exercise 16=

Using diacritical marks indicate the value of the vowels in the following. Try marking them without first consulting a dictionary. After you have marked them, compare your markings with those used in a dictionary.

    pupil         different     diacritical   gigantic
    alphabet      several       radiating     gymnasium
    natural       letter        Wyoming       system
    result        eraser        typical       merchant

=Exercise 17=

Pronounce carefully, noting that in each word at least one consonant is silent, and sometimes a vowel as well. Draw an oblique line through the silent letter or letters in each.

    through     chasten    sword       island
    although    often       fasten      daughter
    wrong       soften      calf        might
    yacht       subtle      hasten      bouquet
    gnaw        almond      naughty     honest
    psalm       glisten     thumb       palm
    whistle     salve       should      knack
    salmon      chestnut    knowledge   castle
    answer      folks       listen      thigh
    knot        right       debt        honor

=Exercise 18=

Pronounce the following, paying particular attention to the vowels. Distinguish between the meanings of the words in each group.

    accept     bile       least      prevision
    except     boil       lest       provision

    affect     carol      eleven     poor
    effect     coral      leaven     pure

  addition   descent    neither    radish
    edition    dissent    nether     reddish

    assay      emerge     pasture    sentry
    essay      immerge    pastor     century

    baron      Francis    pillar     sit
    barren     Frances    pillow     set

    been       jest       point      wrench
    bean       just       pint       rinse

Enunciate the consonant sounds carefully in the following. Distinguish between the meanings of the words in each group.

    acts         close        treaties     rows
    ax           clothes      treatise     rouse

    advice       crossed      princes      rues
    advise       across       princess     ruse

    alms         formerly     prince       either
    elms         formally     prints       ether

    bodice       grays        price        running
    bodies       grace        prize        ruin

    cease        lose         recent       walking
    seize        loose        resent       walk in

    chance       plaintive    sects        weather
    chants       plaintiff    sex          whether

    does         pair         news         worst
    dose         payer        noose        worsted (yarn

Pronounce the following, making sure that each syllable is correct. Guard against slurring the words in the last column.

    been       such       barrel     Did you?
    gone       put        faucet     Don't you?
    to         with       suburb     Go on.
    for        tiny       hearth     Our education
    aunt       and        nothing    You are
    far        poem       office     You're not
    our        catch      peril      We're coming
    kept       toward     forbade    They're coming
    says       donkey     spirit     What did you say?
    rid        again      semi       Where are you going?
    since      against    scared     Where have you been?
    sleek      honest     saucy      I want to go.
    creek      savage     turnip     I'm going to go.
    where      swept      roof       To-morrow morning
    boil       velvet     proof      Next month
    hoist      direct     hydrant    Last Saturday

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