Monday, September 5, 2016

SPELLING RULES--Plurals of Nouns,Irregular Plurals,Compound Nouns,Foreign Plurals,The Formation of Participles,Abbreviations.


-Plurals of Nouns

    (a) dress, dresses      (b) chair, chairs
    splash, splashes               wave, waves
    business, businesses           book, books
    church, churches               pencil, pencils
    fox, foxes                     paper, papers

The usual way of forming the plural of English nouns is illustrated by the words in column (b) above. What is it?

If you add s to the singular form dress, could you distinguish the pronunciation of the plural from the pronunciation of the singular? Does this suggest a reason for adding es to form the plural?

How many syllables must you use to pronounce the plural of fox? Does this suggest another reason for adding es to form the plural?

Every word that ends in a sibilant or hissing sound (ch, s, sh, ss, x, z) forms its plural like fox. Give several llustrations.

Rule 1.--Nouns regularly form the plural by adding s, but those ending in a sibilant must addes.

    (a) lady, ladies       (b) valley, valleys
    ally, allies                  alley, alleys
    soliloquy, soliloquies        journey, journeys

Name five words belonging to group (a) above. Does a vowel or a consonant precede the y in each case?

Name other words belonging to the group (b) above. Does a vowel or a consonant precede the y in each case?

Rule 2.--Nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant (and nouns ending in quy) form the plural by changing y to i and addinges.

Words ending in o


    potato, potatoes      hero, heroes          mulatto, mulattoes
    tomato, tomatoes      buffalo, buffaloes    cargo, cargoes
    negro, negroes        echo, echoes          motto, mottoes


    solo, solos           piano, pianos         memento, mementos
    halo, halos           lasso, lassos         canto, cantos
    zero, zeros           quarto, quartos       soprano, sopranos
                          stilletto, stillettos

The older English words ending in o form the plural by adding es, as in potatoes; those more recently taken into the language form the plural by adding s, as in quartos.

Nouns in f and fe

    leaf, leaves      calf, calves      wife, wives
    loaf, loaves      sheaf, sheaves    shelf, shelves
    half, halves      wolf, wolves      elf, elves
    life, lives       beef, beeves      wharf, wharves (or wharfs)
    self, selves      knife, knives

With the exception of the words given above, nouns ending in an f sound form the plural in the regular way; as,

    hoof, hoofs     scarf, scarfs   beliefs, beliefs
    chief, chiefs   reef, reefs     grief, griefs

Irregular Plurals

Some nouns form their plural by a change of vowel; as,

    man     men         foot    feet
    woman   women       tooth   teeth
    goose   geese       mouse   mice

A few words retain the old time plural en; as,

              brother brethren
    child   children        ox      oxen

A few words are the same in both singular and plural; as,

    sheep, trout, deer

Some nouns have two plurals which differ in meaning; as,

    Singular                Plural
    brother                brothers  brethren
    penny                  pennies   pence
    pea                    peas      pease
    die                    dies      dice

Consult a dictionary for the difference in meaning between the two plurals of each word.

Compound Nouns

    Singular                Plural
    brother-in-law         brothers-in-law
    father-in-law          fathers-in-law
    court-martial          courts-martial
    commander-in-chief     commanders-in-chief
    man-of-war             men-of-war
    major general          major generals
    goose quill            goose quills
    bill of fare           bills of fare
    spoonful               spoonfuls
    cupful                 cupfuls

Rule 3.Compound nouns usually add the sign of the plural to the fundamental part of the word.

      NOTE.--In spoonfuls the thought is of one spoon many       times full.

Plural of Letters and Figures

Rule 4.--Letters and figures form the plural by adding the apostrophe (') and s; as,

    a  a's        3  3's
    w  w's        5  5's

The same rule applies to the plural of words which ordinarily have no plural; as,

    Don't use so many and's and if's.

Foreign Plurals

Some nouns derived from foreign languages retain their original plural.
The following are in common use.

Consult a dictionary for their pronunciation and definition.

    Singular     Plural     Singular     Plural

    crisis        crises        stratum       strata
    thesis        theses        radius        radii
    hypothesis    hypotheses    parenthesis   parentheses
    focus         foci          synopsis      synopses
    datum         data          basis         bases
    alumnus       alumni        automaton     automata
    alumna        alumnae       analysis      analyses
    oasis         oases         nucleus       nuclei
    axis          axes          phenomenon    phenomena
    genus         genera

Some words admit of two plurals, one the foreign plural, and one the regular English plural; as,

    Singular         Plural

    beau          beaux       beaus
    formula       formulae    formulas
    vertex        vertices    vertexes
    index         indices     indexes
    cherub        cherubim    cherubs
    seraph        seraphim    seraphs
    bandit        banditti    bandits

Consult a dictionary to see whether there is any difference of meaning between the two plurals of these words.

The Formation of Participles

    Rap, rapping, rapped      Reap, reaping, reaped

Rap is a monosyllable ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel. The final consonant in such words is doubled before a suffix beginning with a vowel is added.

In reap the final consonant is not doubled because it is preceded by two vowels.

Make the participles of the following verbs:

    chat    lap     suit    step
    cheat   leap    sit     steep
    rot     train   sop     trot
    root    trim    soap    treat

 Trap, trapping, trapped    Track, tracking, tracked

Why is the final consonant in trap doubled before ing or ed is added?

The final consonant in track is not doubled because track ends with two consonants.

    Pin, pinning        Pine, pining

Pine drops the silent e because the tendency in English is to drop endings that are not needed for pronunciation before adding a suffix beginning with a vowel.

Form the participles of the following verbs:

    knot    rob     flop
    note    robe    elope
    deal    swim    quit    (u is not here a vowel)
    clap    strike  crawl   (w is here a vowel)
    stop    oil     wax     (x equals cks)
    peal    rush    bow     (w is here a vowel)

 applies also to words of more than one syllable accented on the last syllable, if they retain the accent on the same syllable after the suffix is added. Thus we have

=Rule 5.--Monosyllables or words accented on the last syllable, ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, double the final consonant before adding a suffix beginning with a vowel.=

Form participles from the following words that are accented on the last syllable:

    prefer        intervene     escape        expel
    refer         reveal        acquire       contain
    occur         repeal        secure        forbid
    permit        pursue        conceal       incur
    interfere     erase         arrange       forget
    retain        control       acquit        repel

Form participles from the following words not accented on the last syllable:

    benefit   travel    marvel    shelter
    revel     answer    exhibit   render
    quarrel   profit    shovel    limit

Words in which the accent changes do not double the final consonant before adding a suffix beginning with a vowel; as,

    confer    conference         infer     inference
    refer     reference          prefer    preferable

Explain why the final consonant is not doubled in each of the following words:

    neglect     neglecting      lean        leaning
    prefer      preference      select      selecting
    creep       creeping        receipt     receipting
    wonder      wondering       answer      answering

=Rule 6.--In forming the present participle of verbs ending in y, retain the y before adding ing; as,=

    study     studying          obey      obeying
    carry     carrying          convey    conveying
    pity      pitying

In forming the perfect participle, if in the present tense the y is preceded by a consonant, the y is changed to i and ed added; if the y is preceded by a vowel, the y is retained; as,

    study     studied   carry     carried   pity      pitied


    obey      obeyed    convey    conveyed

Compare with Rule 2.

=Rule 7.--In words containing a long e sound spelled either ie or ei, ei follows c; ie follows one of the other consonants; as,=

    ei                    ie
    deceive          relieve     siege
    perceive         believe     yield
    receive          belief      grief
    conceive         chief       field
    conceit          priest      piece
    receipt          niece       wield
                     reprieve    lien

Exceptions.--Either, neither, weird, seize, leisure.

The following couplet may help in remembering when to write ie and when to write ei:

    When the letter c you spy,
    Put the e before the i.

The Pronunciation of c and g

The letter c is pronounced sometimes like s and sometimes like k.

What sound does c have before a? Illustrate.

Before e? Illustrate.

Before i? Illustrate.

Before o? Illustrate.

Before u? Illustrate.

Before y? Illustrate.

If c is pronounced like k, it is called hard and is marked [\c].

If c is pronounced like s, it is called soft and is marked ç. The mark used to indicate the soft c is called the cedilla.

Make a statement telling when c is hard and when it is soft.

What sound does g have before each of the vowels, as in game, gone, gymnasium, Gunther, gentle?

=Rule 8.--C and g usually are soft before e, i, and y.=

Words ending in silent e, according to Rule 5, drop the e before a suffix beginning with a vowel. Exceptions occur when the e is needed to preserve the soft sound of c and g. Tell why e is dropped in encouraging and retained in courageous.

In words containing dg, as in judge and lodge, the d gives the g the soft sound, and there is no need to retain the e before adding a suffix, as in judgment.

=Rule 9.--Words ending in silent e usually drop the e before adding a suffix beginning with a vowel, unless the e is needed to preserve the pronunciation; as after soft c and g, when the suffix begins with a or o.=

Tell why the e is retained before the suffix in the following:

    noticeable     damageable     pronounceable  outrageous
    courageous     peaceable      serviceable    manageable

Tell why the e is dropped before adding the suffix in the following:

    managing           curable            erasure
    besieging          admirable          realization
    receiving          obliging           precedence

The fact that c has two different sounds causes a slight peculiarity in words ending in c. Final c has the sound of k. When words end in c, the letter k is usually added before a suffix beginning with either e, i, or y, to show that c is not pronounced like s; as,

    frolic         frolicked      frolicking

If the k is not added, the c changes its pronunciation; as,

    public                          publicity

It follows by inference from Rule 9 that words ending in silent e retain the e before a suffix beginning with a consonant; as,

    move        movement          disgrace    disgraceful
    defense     defenseless       fate        fateful
    arrange     arrangement       fierce      fiercely
    noise       noiseless         manage      management
    severe      severely          rude        rudeness

Exceptions.--Truly, duly, wisdom, awful, wholly.

Bring to class a list of twenty words that retain the final e before a suffix beginning with a consonant.

What spelling rule does each of the following words illustrate?

    advantageous     gigantic         boxes            admittance
    mimicking        piece            libraries        occurrence
    arrangement      receipt          keys             acquittal


Write abbreviations for the months of the year. Are there any that should not be abbreviated?

The abbreviations for the states and territories are:

    Alabama, Ala.                   Maryland, Md.
    Arizona, Ariz.                  Massachusetts, Mass.
    Arkansas, Ark.                  Michigan, Mich.
    California, Cal.                Minnesota, Minn.
    Colorado, Colo.                 Mississippi, Miss.
    Connecticut, Conn.              Missouri, Mo.
    Delaware, Del.                  Montana, Mont.
    District of Columbia, D.C.      Nebraska, Nebr.
    Florida, Fla.                   Nevada, Nev.
    Georgia, Ga.                    New Hampshire, N.H.
    Idaho, Idaho                    New Mexico, N. Mex.
    Illinois, Ill.                  New York, N.Y.
    Indiana, Ind.                   New Jersey, N.J.
    Iowa, Ia.                       North Carolina, N.C.
    Kansas, Kans.                   North Dakota, N. Dak.
    Kentucky, Ky.                   Ohio, O.
    Louisiana, La.                  Oklahoma, Okla.
    Maine, Me.                      Oregon, Ore.
    Pennsylvania, Pa.               Utah, Utah
    Philippine Islands, P.I.        Vermont, Vt.
    Porto Rico, P.R.                Virginia, Va.
    South Carolina, S.C.            Washington, Wash.
    South Dakota, S.D.              Wisconsin, Wis.
    Tennessee, Tenn.                West Virginia, W. Va.
    Texas, Tex.                     Wyoming, Wyo.

      NOTE.--It is much better to write the full name rather than the abbreviation whenever the former would make
      the address clearer, especially as regards similar abbreviations, such as Cal. and Colo.

Abbreviations of Commercial Terms

A 1, first class                 doz., dozen
    @, at                            E. & O.E., errors and omissions
    acct., account                   ea., each
    adv., advertisement              e.g., for example
    agt., agent                      etc., and so forth
    a.m., forenoon                   exch., exchange
    amt., amount                     ft., foot
    app., appendix                   f.o.b., free on board
    atty., attorney                  gal., gallon
    av., average                     i.e., that is
    avoir., avoirdupois              imp., imported
    bal., balance                    in., inches
    bbl., barrel                     inst., this month (instant)
    B/L, bill of lading              Jr., junior
    bldg., building                  kg., keg
    B/S, bill of sale                lb., pound
    bu., bushel                      ltd., limited
    C.B., cash book                  mdse., merchandise
    C., hundred                      mem., memorandum
    coll., collection, collector     mo., month
    Co., company                     M.S. (MSS)., manuscript
    C.O.D., cash on delivery         mtg., mortgage
    cr., creditor                    N.B., take notice
    cwt., hundredweight              no., number
    D., five hundred                 O.K., all right
    dept., department                per, by
    disc., discount                  p.m., afternoon
    do., ditto                       %, per cent
    dr., debtor, debit               St., street
    pkg., package                    str., steamer
    pp., pages                       ult., last month
    pr., pair                        U.S.M., United States Mail
    pc., piece                       viz., namely
    pk., peck                        vol., volume
    prox., next month                W/B, way bill
    pt., pint                        wt., weight
    Sr., senior

No comments:

Best English conversation - Popular Posts