Saturday, September 10, 2016

WORD ANALYSIS-Define each suffix.,Adjective Suffixes,Verb Suffixes,Noun Suffixes.


To learn English words thoroughly we must spend some thought on the way in which they are made up, on the language from which they have been derived, and on the changes in meaning made by adding prefixes and suffixes. Three important influences in building the English have been  the Anglo-Saxon, the Greek, and the Latin languages. The simplest words in the language are Anglo-Saxon. The following exercises illustrate how words have been multiplied by Anglo-Saxon prefixes and suffixes.

Name as many words as you can that make use of each of the following prefixes. Give only such as are recognizable English words without the prefix.

    a--aboard               mis--misjudge
    be--becalm              un--unknown
    fore--foretell          up--uproot

Give the meaning of each of the prefixes used above.

What part of speech does each prefix make

Using the following Teutonic suffixes, form English words. Be careful that the root taken alone is an English word.

    dom--kingdom           ness--goodness
    hood--manhood          ship--friendship

What does each suffix mean?

What part of speech does it make?

As above, form words using the following suffixes:

    en--darken       ful--fearful
    en--golden       ly--smoothly
    ish--sweetish    like--childlike
    less--fearless   some--lonesome

Define each suffix.

What part of speech does it make?

Greek Roots

Below is given a list of common Greek roots with the English meaning of each. Form words using one or more of the roots for each word, and define the words you make. For instance, give the meaning of telephone, telegraph, and monarch.

    Greek English           Greek English

    phon--hear                chron--time
    tele--far                 cycl--circle
    graph--write              geo--earth
    scop--see                 polit--government
    micro--small              cra--rule
    mono--one                 demo--people
    arch--chief               hydro--water
    metr--measure             poly--many
    baro--pressure, weight    pluto--riches

How many names of modern inventions have you made?

What words belonging to your vocabulary end in the following suffixes?
Choose only such as have an English word for the root.

Adjective Suffixes

     1. able, ible--able to be, fit to be
        Readable, fit to be read.

     2. al, eal, ial--relating to, having to do with

     3. ant, ent--being, inclined to

     4. ate--having the quality of, inclined to

     5. ic--like, relating to

     6. ive--relating to, of the nature of, belonging to

     7. ory, ary--relating to

     8. ous--full of, abounding in

Verb Suffixes

    1. ate--to make

    2. fy, ify--to make

    3. ise, ize--to make

Noun Suffixes

     1. age--condition, act, collection of

     2. ance, ancy, ence, ency--state of being

     3. ary, ory--one who, place where, that which

     4. ant, ent--one who

     5. ist, ite--one who

     6. ion, sion, tion--act of, state of being

     7. ity, ty--quality of being

     8. ment--that which, act or state of being

     9. or, er, ar--one who

    10. try--state of

    11. tude, itude--condition of being

    12. ure--condition of being, that which

The following is a list of the more commonly used Latin prefixes:

     1. a, ab--away from               16. intro--toward the inside
     2. ad--toward                       17. mono--one
     3. ante--before                     18. non--not
     4. anti--against                    19. ob--in the way of, against
     5. bi--two, twice                   20. per--through
     6. circum--around                   21. pre--before
     7. con--together with, against      22. post--after
     8. contra--against                  23. pro--before
     9. de--from, apart from, down from  24. re--again, back
    10. dis--apart, not                  25. semi--half, partly
    11. dia--through                     26. se--away from
    12. ex--out of                       27. sub--under, below
    13. in, en--into                        28. super--above, more than
        en--to cause to be               29. trans--across

   14. in, un--not                    30. uni--one
    15. inter--between

Analyze the following words, telling prefix, root, suffix, part of speech, and meaning:

    business        package         truthfulness    unsuccessful
    useless         anteroom        workmanlike     agreement
    prefix          monotone        nervousness     uniformity
    beautify        breakage        disrespectful   misguidance
    semicircle      pleasant        perfection      crystallize
    kingship        sameness        progressive     precaution
    incase          subway          undeniable      imaginary
    enrich          disown          displeasure     supernatural
    pianist         readmit         endurance       melodious
    bicycle         adjuster        reaction        interlineal

When the prefixes ad, con, and in are used to form English words, the final consonant of each is often changed to the initial consonant of the root to which it is joined.

Ad assumes the forms ab, ac, af, ag, al, an, ap, ar, as, at, assimilating the d with the first letter of the word to
which it is prefixed; as,

    ab-breviate     al-literation   ar-rest
    ac-cept         al-lot          as-sign
    ac-cumulate     an-nex          as-sist
    af-fect         an-nounce       at-tract
    af-flict        ap-position     at-tribute
    ag-gregate      ap-prove        at-tune

Con assumes the forms col, cor, com, by assimilation; it takes the form com before p; and it drops the n before a vowel; as,

    col-lateral     com-mercial     com-pose
    col-lect        cor-relate      co-operate
    com-mission     cor-respond     co-ordinate

In assumes the forms il, im, ir, by assimilation and takes the form of im before p.

    il-lusion    im-migrate   ir-ruption   im-port

Peculiar Adjective Endings

The suffixes able and ible are sometimes troublesome because it is difficult to know which ending to write. As a rule, if the new word was made from another English word, the ending is able, as blamable. The words ending in ible are derived from the Latin, and, as a rule, the ending cannot easily be separated from the root and still leave the latter an English word. Examples are:

    divisible     intelligible  digestible    audible
    visible       permissible   flexible      incredible
    possible      terrible      horrible      indelible

The suffixes ant and ent must also be carefully noted. No rule can be given for using one rather than the other. Whenever in doubt, consult a dictionary. Note the following:

      ant            ent
    important        independent
    pleasant         convalescent
    triumphant       competent
    luxuriant        convenient
    stagnant         confident

The endings eous and ious, where e and i are often confused, are illustrated in the following:

     eous            ious
    hideous           delirious
    miscellaneous     impious
    courteous         studious

The endings cious and tious are shown in the following:

     cious             tious
    conscious           fictitious
    precious            superstitious
    delicious           cautious
    gracious            ambitious
    suspicious          nutritious

The endings gious and geous are illustrated in the following:

     gious             geous
    religious          courageous

Peculiar Noun and Verb Endings=

Nouns in ance and ence:

ance            ence
    acceptance        intelligence
    appearance        reference
    annoyance         patience
    acquaintance      negligence
    remittance        diligence
    ignorance         residence

Nouns in sion, cion, and tion:

     sion        cion         tion
    exclusion     coercion      acquisition
    aversion      suspicion     precaution

Verbs in ise, yze, and ize:

    ise          yze         ize
    advise        analyze       baptize
    supervise     paralyze      recognize

Verbs in ceed, sede, and cede:

    ceed         sede        cede
    exceed        supersede     concede
    proceed                     intercede
    succeed                     precede

What other words can you form from the following? Explain what prefixes or suffixes you use in each case and what part of speech you form.

    success      consider     real         change
    please       doubt        publish      attend
    occur        apply        regular      satisfy
    emphasize    industry     operate      assess
    second       busy         practice     resist
    expense      distribute   organ        define
    depend       locate       work         sense
    attract      install      desire       preside
    effect       vital        count        sign

There are many words the meanings of which are easily confused. The spelling and the definitions of such must be mastered. Analysis in this exercise and in the one following does not require separation into prefix, root, and suffix, but it necessitates a careful study of the words, first, to note the difference in spelling; second, to consult a dictionary, if necessary, for the difference in meaning.

Define each word clearly.

Use each in a sentence to illustrate its meaning.

    accept--except             common--mutual
    add--annex                 complementary--complimentary
    advice--advise             continual--continuous
    affect--effect             contraction--abbreviation
    after--afterward           contradiction--denial
    ascend--assent             currant--current
    assure--promise            defective--deficient
    attain--obtain             deprecate--depreciate
    benefit--advantage         effective--efficient
    brief--concise             eligible--illegible
    center--middle             eminent--prominent
    claim--maintain            expect--hope
    combine--combination       intelligent--intelligible

As above, define each word carefully and use it in a sentence to illustrate its meaning.

healthful--healthy         proficient--efficient
    inventory--invoice         proscribe--prescribe
    invite--invitation         purpose--propose
    last--latest               quiet--quite
    later--latter              recommend--recommendation
    liable--likely--apt        refer--allude
    loose--lose                repair--fix
    need--want                 requirement--requisite--requisition
    perspective--prospective   respectfully--respectively
    positive--definite         scarcely--hardly
    practicable--practical     stationary--stationery
    precede--proceed           therefore--accordingly

No comments:

Best English conversation - Popular Posts